At the moment’s layer flocks stay for about 90 weeks. Regardless of the rearing section solely accounting for a small proportion of the birds’ life cycle, it performs an necessary function in subsequent egg manufacturing.
Good rearing administration is extra than simply following breeding firm guides. These working with birds should additionally take note of flock situation and habits, and make choices based mostly on remark. What the pullet rearer sees each day is commonly neglected, but it’s one of an important elements in profitable pullet rearing.
Getting ready the Pullets hen home
Isolation and restricted entry to the brooding space are of prime significance to manage and stop poultry ailments. The all in-all out program is beneficial, because it offers a superb means of isolation, and permits correct cleanup ought to a illness happen.
Motion between the rearing space and lay homes needs to be prevented.
Solely place day-old chicks in correctly cleaned and disinfected homes, and make sure the home is at 36C when chicks arrive. Litter ought to solely be positioned as soon as the ground is on the appropriate temperature.
Ought to there be vital variations between flooring and room temperature, and if litter is inconsistently unfold, condensation could make the litter sticky.
Learn Additionally: Elements that Stop Pullets from Laying Eggs on the Acceptable Time
Brooding interval for Pullets
The primary week may be termed the brooding interval. Publish-hatch, chicks are cold-blooded for the primary 5 days of life, unable to keep up their physique temperatures at 40-41C, and depending on exterior warmth sources.
Consequently, air temperature is among the many most necessary elements for profitable rearing. Utilizing an infrared thermometer, chick physique temperature may be monitored, and the home temperature adjusted as needed.
However essential errors are sometimes noticed in the poultry home:
- Reference thermometer not at chick stage. At 50 cms above chick stage, there could be a temperature distinction of 2-3 C
- Conduct ignored. Trying on the thermometer is just not sufficient, chick habits should even be intently watched. Some flocks are comfy with 34C in the course of the first 24 hours, others want 26C. Chicks needs to be evenly unfold all through the barn. If huddled, they’re chilly, whereas if inactive with unfold wings they’re too heat.
- Air humidity. To make sure warmth distribution throughout the poultry home, and to stop chicks dehydrating, air humidity should be not less than 60 %. If not, chicks will really feel uncomfortable, regardless of the temperature being appropriate. Humidity is well improved, for instance by moistening areas the place chicks aren’t current, or by hanging moist sheets.
Additionally it is value remembering that drafts will chill chicks and result in piling.
Lighting for Pullets
On arrival, chicks have already endured a protracted transportation interval. For day-old chicks, it’s regular to have 24-hour lighting for the primary 2-3 days, permitting them to get better and to eat and drink advert libitum.
Nevertheless, whereas some chicks relaxation after arrival, others search out meals or water; flock exercise will all the time be uneven. At this stage, it may be tough to precisely assess chick habits and situation. An intermittent lighting program can be utilized over the primary 7-10 days post-hatch.
This divides the day into resting and exercise phases, and goals to synchronize chick exercise to make it simpler for workers to evaluate flock situation and to stimulate meals and water consumption by group habits.
The advantages of utilizing an intermittent program are:
- Chicks relaxation or sleep on the similar time and habits is synchronized
- Weaker chicks are stimulated by stronger ones to be energetic and ingest feed and water
- Conduct turns into extra uniform, making evaluation simpler
- Week one losses are decreased.
As soon as this system has been used for 10 days, the rearer can undertake the breeding firm beneficial lighting program.
Feed and water
Poultry growers ought to purpose to feed and water day-old chicks as rapidly as doable on arrival to reduce first week mortality. The earlier they eat, the higher they metabolize the yolk sack vitamins, reducing the danger of yolk sack an infection.
There should be sufficient area between feeders and drinkers and, after veterinary session, electrolytes may be added to the water. Holding the water temperature at 22-25C aids water consumption.
Feeding highest quality mash or crumbled feed is just not beneficial throughout this era. Solely non-saturated fatty acids, equivalent to linoleic acid, may be utilized by the chicks and needs to be added to the feed.
4 diets – starter, grower, developer and pre-layer – in the course of the brood/develop interval are enough for chicks/pullets. Every needs to be supplemented with nutritional vitamins and minerals and needs to be fed till breeding firm goal weight is achieved.
The primary errors seen in rearing home are:
- Nipple drinkers too excessive. In the course of the first days, they need to be on the chick eye stage. Chicks should be capable to function the nipples simply, so water strain should be low.
- Too few drinkers and feeders. Birds mustn’t need to seek for feed and water. Birds that don’t drink don’t eat.
- If birds arrive beak trimmed, open water sources, for instance spherical drinker cups, should be out there.
- Water in spherical drinkers should be frequently modified and contours flushed. Pipes should be completely cleaned and care taken to make sure no disinfectant residues taint the consuming water.
- Incorrect water temperature. Water temperature needs to be 22-25C.
- Feed and water are generally positioned many hours or days previous to chick arrival, resulting in dry feed and water that’s too heat. This may gradual progress and improve first week mortality.
- If pan feeders are incorrectly adjusted, birds over 12 weeks of age could selectively eat, resulting in the inaccurate provide of vitamins.
- Utilizing totally different drinker and feeder methods at rearing and manufacturing can contribute to hunger and the dehydration of pullets post-transfer. By no means use open water sources and chain feeders when you switch pullets to the manufacturing home if solely nipple drinkers and pan feeders are put in.
- Provide feed with the proper particle dimension for every age. Very younger birds don’t like feed that’s too effective.
Physique weight is extra necessary than age when altering feeding section, and adjustments shouldn’t be made earlier than goal weight is reached.
Learn Additionally: Layers Administration: Pullets (Day Previous Chicks) Vs Level of Lay (Layers) which is Higher?
Chicken weight is a vital indicator for making use of administration instruments. Often noticed errors embody:
- Weighing with out drawing conclusions.
- Weighing too few birds; 1 % of the flock, or not less than 100 birds per flock, needs to be weighed.
- Not weighing birds in any respect.
Stay alert to doable misery alerts from chicks, and react to the next behaviors:
- Listless and prostrate chicks point out extreme warmth
- Loud chirping suggests starvation or chilly
- Grouping or huddling collectively signifies chilly or drafts
- Pasted vents, which can point out extreme warmth or coldness or feed containing unbalanced fatty acids.
When rearing pullets, administration guides are indispensible, however intuition tells us lots too. A local weather laptop could point out optimum situations, but when flock habits doesn’t look proper, then the rationale must be discovered. A bit time funding pays dividends and improve the rearer’s sensitivity to the flock.