Most instances you see some poultry farmers complaining that the quantity of eggs they get from their birds are lowering each day and making an attempt to discover out the doable causes. Properly the very first thing is to discover out if all of them are laying, if not strive to discover out the the explanation why some have stopped laying which could possibly be due to previous age, ailments or poor administration and if all these are dominated out then you’ll be able to assume of theft.
And should you uncover that the lower is due to theft then the easy factor to do is to enhance your safety stage. Go to the farm usually and unannounced, get an excellent and dependable farm supervisor/supervisor.
Additionally rotate the farm attendants from one pen to one other, use different safety measures on deemed obligatory.
The laying cycle of a hen flock normally covers a span of about 12 months. Egg manufacturing begins when the birds attain about 18-22 weeks of age, relying on the breed and season. Flock manufacturing rises sharply and reaches a peak of about 90%, 6-8 weeks later.
Production then progressively declines to about 65% after 12 months of lay. A typical manufacturing curve for a laying flock will present adjustments in the extent of egg manufacturing and in egg weight, over time.
There are a lot of components that may adversely have an effect on egg manufacturing. Unraveling the trigger of a sudden drop in egg manufacturing requires an intensive investigation into the historical past of the flock.
Egg manufacturing may be affected by such components as feed consumption (high quality and amount), water consumption, depth and period of gentle acquired parasite, infestation, illness, and quite a few administration and environmental components.
Fluctuations in egg manufacturing may be attributable to a myriad of bodily, behavioral, environmental and emotional triggers, some requiring remedial motion and others, no trigger for alarm.
To find out the rationale for a decline in egg manufacturing, an entire flock historical past and bodily evaluation of all birds must be carried out, asking questions similar to: have any new chickens been added to the flock, have been new birds correctly quarantined, have there been any adjustments in feed, housing preparations, climate, lighting, droppings, have there been any indicators of predators or sickness similar to eye discharge, sneezing, lethargy, and so forth.
After taking all components into consideration, the trigger ought to turn out to be obvious.
Learn Additionally: Elements that Prevent Pullets from Laying Eggs on the Acceptable Time
NON-INFECTIOUS CAUSES OF EGG PRODUCTION REDUCTION
Chickens can dwell for a few years and proceed to lay eggs for a lot of of these years. Nonetheless, after two or three years many hens considerably decline in productiveness.
This varies significantly from hen to hen. Good layers will lay for about 50 to 60 weeks and then have a relaxation interval known as a molt. Poorer layers and older hens will molt extra usually and lay much less persistently.
Laying chickens require a very balanced weight loss plan to maintain most egg manufacturing over time. Insufficient diet could cause hens to cease laying. Insufficient ranges of power, protein or calcium could cause a drop in egg manufacturing.
That is why it’s so vital to provide laying hens with a continuing provide of nutritionally balanced layer meals. Feeding complete grains, scratch feeds and desk scraps will trigger the birds weight loss plan to turn out to be imbalanced and insufficient.
Many instances these imbalances could cause different issues like oviductal prolapse. Prolapse could happen when the hen is just too fats and/or an egg is just too giant and the hen’s reproductive tract is expelled with the egg. Prolapse normally causes everlasting harm to the hen and is deadly in many instances.
Decreased Lighting Circumstances
Gentle triggers a hen’s pituitary gland to produce eggs. Common egg-laying requires 14 to 16 hours of gentle and decreased daylight could cause a drop in or cease to egg manufacturing.
Complement gentle may be added to the coop to encourage egg-laying with no detrimental results to the hen regardless of myths to the opposite.
Molting is the pure course of of feather shedding and re-growth. Hens divert protein and power away from egg manufacturing to consider feather progress.
Supplementing a hen’s weight loss plan with further protein throughout a molt can support in feather progress and egg manufacturing.
Omission of Feed Elements
Salt: Animals have an innate want to eat salt. Feeding a salt-deficient weight loss plan will lead to elevated feather pecking and a decline in egg manufacturing.
Most animal feeds will comprise added salt, normally in the shape of sodium chloride. Iodine isn’t added as a separate ingredient.
As an alternative, iodized salt is routinely used. Cobalt iodized salt is commonly used in diets for swine and ruminants, and this can be used with none issues for poultry. This sort of salt is normally blue.
Sodium: is a necessary nutrient, taking part in a serious position in sustaining physique fluid quantity, blood pH, and correct osmotic relationships. A constantly low consumption of salt could cause a loss of urge for food. Sodium deficiencies adversely have an effect on utilization of dietary protein and power, and intervene with reproductive efficiency.
Chlorine: can also be a necessary nutrient. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) launched from the true abdomen (proventriculus) is vital in digestion. Chlorine additionally performs a task in sustaining osmotic steadiness in physique fluids. Birds poor in chlorine are extra nervous, exhibiting elevated sensitivity to sudden noise.
Calcium: The egg shell consists primarily of calcium carbonate. The pullet’s requirement for calcium is comparatively low throughout the rising interval, however when the primary eggs are produced, the necessity is elevated at the very least 4 instances, with virtually all of the rise getting used for the manufacturing of eggshells. Insufficient calcium consumption will outcome in decreased egg manufacturing and decrease egg shell high quality.
Hens retailer calcium in medullary bone, a specialised bone succesful of speedy calcium turnover. As calcium shops are depleted, bones turn out to be brittle. In extreme instances, hens are unable to stand.
The situation is called caged-layer fatigue. Birds on the bottom or on litter flooring recycle calcium and phosphorus by means of consumption of feces, and do not need caged-layer fatigue.
Calcium may be provided in the weight loss plan as both floor limestone or oyster shell. Particle dimension impacts calcium availability. Often the bigger the particle dimension, the longer the particle will probably be retained in the higher digestive tract.
Which means that the bigger particles of the calcium supply are launched extra slowly, and this can be vital for the continuity of shell formation, particularly in the darkish interval when birds don’t ordinarily eat.
Periodically, dolomitic limestone is obtainable to the feed trade. Nonetheless, dolomitic limestone (which is used in the metal trade) ought to by no means be used in poultry diets. Dolomitic limestone accommodates at the very least 10% magnesium, and this complexes with calcium or competes with calcium for absorption websites in the intestines.
The consequence of feeding dolomitic limestone is induced calcium deficiency.
Younger birds shouldn’t be fed a excessive calcium layer weight loss plan as a result of the calcium/phosphorus ratio will probably be unbalanced, ensuing in elevated morbidity or mortality.
Vitamin D: Vitamin D is required for regular calcium absorption and utilization. If insufficient ranges of vitamin D are fed, induced calcium deficiency shortly outcomes and egg manufacturing decreases. Feed grade vitamin D comes in two varieties, D2 and D3. In most animals, each are equally potent. In birds, nonetheless, D3 is considerably extra energetic than D2. In poultry diets, subsequently, vitamin D have to be provided in the shape of D3.
Protein: Dietary necessities for protein are literally necessities for the amino acids that represent the protein. There are 22 amino acids in physique proteins, and all are physiologically important.
Poultry can not synthesize some of these, or can not synthesize them quickly sufficient to meet the metabolic requirement. Subsequently, these amino acids have to be provided in the weight loss plan.
Amino acid necessities fluctuate significantly in accordance to the productive state (i.e., rising, laying eggs, and so forth.), age, kind, breed, and pressure. Methionine is the amino acid most frequently poor in laying rations.
When pullets start laying, there is a rise in protein, vitamin and mineral necessities per day due to deposition in the egg. If dietary protein is just too low or the amino acid necessities are usually not met, poor egg manufacturing and hatchability will happen.
Fats: Dietary fats is a supply of power and of linoleic acid, a necessary fatty acid. A deficiency of linoleic acid will adversely have an effect on egg manufacturing. Dietary fat additionally function “carriers” of fat-soluble nutritional vitamins, and some fats is critical for absorption of nutritional vitamins. In reality, impairment of the absorption of fat-soluble nutritional vitamins (A, D, E, and Okay) is essentially the most critical consequence of a dietary deficiency of fats.
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Though the salt requirement of birds is comparatively low, enough ranges are important, and extreme quantities are extremely poisonous and scale back egg manufacturing. Birds require a delicate steadiness between obligatory and poisonous ranges of salt.
Extra dietary salt consumption readily causes moist droppings and moist litter. A number of feed substances, similar to fish meal, corn gluten meal, meat meal, whey and sunflower meal comprise excessive ranges of sodium. When such substances are used, the extent of supplemental salt (NaCl) in the weight loss plan have to be decreased.
The dietary position of phosphorus is intently associated to that of calcium. Each are constituents of bone. The ratio of dietary calcium to phosphorus impacts the absorption of each these parts; an extra of both one impedes absorption and can scale back egg manufacturing, shell high quality and/or hatchability.
As well as to its operate in bone, phosphorus performs a major position in carbohydrate metabolism, is energetic in fats metabolism, and helps to regulate the acid-base steadiness of the physique.
Extra vitamin D3 leads to elevated calcium absorption ensuing in hypercalcemia which can scale back egg manufacturing. Most animal species seem to give you the option to tolerate 10 instances their vitamin D3 requirement for lengthy intervals of time.
For brief-periods of time, poultry can tolerate up to 100 instances their requirement. An extra of vitamin D3 in the weight loss plan, subsequently, is unlikely.
Molds can produce mycotoxins which adversely have an effect on egg manufacturing and normal well being. They will intervene with the absorption or metabolism of sure vitamins, relying on the actual mycotoxin.
Obvious calcium and/or vitamin D3 deficiencies can happen when mycotoxin contaminated feeds are given to laying hens. As well as, some have hormonal results which might trigger a decline in egg manufacturing.
The key mycotoxin of concern with corn is aflatoxin, produced by the mildew Aspergillus flavus. The mildew infects corn each in the sector and in storage. Aflatoxin fluoresces underneath ultraviolet gentle, so its presence may be detected by inspecting grain underneath “black light”.
Different mycotoxins typically related to corn and different grains are zearalenone (F-2 toxin), ochratoxin, T-2 toxin, vomitoxin, and citrinin. Greater than 300 mycotoxins have been recognized.
Botulism is an acute intoxication attributable to consumption of a neurotoxin produced by the micro organism Clostridium botulinum. It generally happens when birds eat decomposing carcasses, spoiled feed or different decaying natural supplies. Ponds and different stagnant water sources are sometimes areas of decaying supplies that will comprise this toxin.
Quite a few crops are poisonous to various levels if plant components or seeds are consumed by the hen. Production, hatchability, progress, and livability could also be decreased.
Examples of these crops embrace crotalaria, nightshade, espresso weed, cotton seeds, chick peas, vetches, and many ornamentals.
Different potential causes of issues embrace pesticides, herbicides, disinfectants, fertilizers, medicine, antibiotics, and different chemical compounds, together with oils and antifreeze.
Anticoccidials (to prevent coccidiosis) are generally used in diets for substitute pullets, meat birds and younger breeding inventory which are reared on litter flooring. Anticoccidials are usually not given to business laying hens.
Nicarbazin is an anticoccidial drug that reduces reproductive efficiency when it’s inadvertently added to layer or breeder diets at regular anticoccidial ranges. The yolk membranes are weakened, ensuing in mottling of the yolk.
Nicarbazin fed to brown-egg layers turns their eggshells white inside 48 hours, though that is utterly reversible when the product is withdrawn from the feed. Even low ranges of nicarbazin could cause some loss in shell coloration, mottling of egg yolks (see Reality Sheet PS-24, “Egg Quality”), and a decline in hatchability.
Monensin has been essentially the most profitable of the anticoccidials. Monensins, and different ionophore anticoccidials, have an opposed impact on egg manufacturing when used in conjunction with low protein diets.
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Administration Errors that additionally Reduces Egg Production
Out of feed
If hens are out of feed for a number of hours, a decline in egg manufacturing will most likely happen. The quantity of decline will probably be associated to the time with out feed. Ensure that all of the birds have entry to an enough provide of an entire feed which meets all their dietary necessities.
Feed saved on the farm longer than two weeks could turn out to be moldy. If feed turns into moist it must be discarded. As well as, vitamin efficiency decreases with extended storage.
Out of water
Water is commonly taken as a right, and but it’s most likely essentially the most important nutrient. Water is by far the one biggest constituent of the physique, and, in normal, represents about 70% of whole physique weight.
Entry to water is essential, and an absence of water for a number of hours will most likely trigger a decline in egg manufacturing. Hens are extra delicate to an absence of water than an absence of feed.
The quantity of water wanted will depend on environmental temperature and relative humidity, weight loss plan composition, and fee of egg manufacturing. It has been usually assumed that birds drink roughly twice as a lot water as the quantity of feed consumed on a weight foundation, however water consumption varies significantly, particularly in sizzling climate.
Hens want about 14 hours of day size to keep egg manufacturing. The depth of gentle must be enough to permit an individual to learn newsprint at hen stage. The lowering day-length and shorter day-lengths throughout shorter days’ seasons could be anticipated to trigger a extreme decline, and even cessation, in egg manufacturing except supplemental gentle is supplied. When manufacturing ceases, the birds may additionally bear a feather molt. Hens uncovered to solely pure gentle could be anticipated to resume egg manufacturing shortly.
Stress and Change
Hens are extraordinarily delicate to stress and sometimes reply to it by placing the brakes on egg-laying. They notably dislike change, which is a serious trigger of stress and decline in egg-laying.
Anyone of the next can adversely have an effect on egg manufacturing: adjustments in feed, adjustments in coop format, transferring to a special farm or coop, including or shedding flock members, annoyance from a well-intentioned baby, a fright from a predator, irritation from inner parasites (worms, coccidia) or exterior parasites,(lice, mites, rodents) violent climate, barking canine and excessive warmth.
Excessive home temperatures
Excessive environmental temperatures pose extreme issues for all sorts of poultry. Feed consumption, egg manufacturing, egg dimension, and hatchability are all adversely affected underneath circumstances of extreme warmth stress. Shade, air flow, and a plentiful provide of cool water assist scale back the opposed results of warmth stress.
ECTO-PARASITES THAT AFFECTS EGG PRODUCTION
An ecto-parasite is a parasitic organism that feeds on the outside of the physique of the host.
Northern fowl mite
The northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) is the commonest of the poultry mites. Northern fowl mites are blood suckers and are irritating to poultry. Anemia happens in closely parasitized birds, lowering feed effectivity, egg manufacturing, and potential to stand up to and overcome ailments.
A number of species of chewing lice could also be discovered on chickens, particularly these in small flocks or on vary.
Rooster lice feed on dry scales, feathers, or scabs on the pores and skin. As lice crawl over the hen, their mouth components and sharp claws scratch the pores and skin. The fixed irritation causes the hen to turn out to be nervous and behave abnormally, inflicting a normal unthriftiness and unkempt look in the hen.
Egg manufacturing in infested flocks could drop as a lot as 10%, though some heavy infestations have prompted egg manufacturing to fall as a lot as 20%.
Stick-tight fleas are typically a extreme drawback in dwelling flocks and could also be tough to prevent or eradicate. The grownup feminine flea attaches to the pores and skin across the face and head, inflicting extreme irritation and, in some instances, blindness.
An endoparasite is a parasite that lives and feeds contained in the host animal.
Heavy infestations of endoparasites could cause unthriftiness, poor feed effectivity, poor progress, decreased egg manufacturing, and mortality in extreme infestations. Contaminated birds may additionally be extra vulnerable to varied ailments and stresses.
Nematodes, or roundworms, are elongated, cylindrical and unsegmented endoparasites. There are a lot of species of roundworms, every tending to infect a selected space of the gastrointestinal tract.
Tapeworms (cestodes) are white or yellowish ribbon-like segmented flat worms. They fluctuate in dimension from 0.17 to 12 inches in size. Though tapeworms don’t produce intensive lesions or harm to the intestines, they’re dietary opponents. A cestode doesn’t digest its personal meals.
As an alternative, it anchors itself to the inside wall of the hen’s intestines, letting its segmented physique dangle in the circulate of digested materials, absorbing vitamins earlier than they are often utilized by the host. A range of commercially obtainable anthelmintics will successfully and safely eradicate each nematodes and cestodes from poultry.
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Fowl pox is a viral illness of chickens characterised by scab-like lesions on the pores and skin of the unfeathered physique components and/or on diphtheritic (moist) membranes lining the mouth or air passages.
An infection with the fowl pox virus will trigger the chickens to have poor progress, poor feed conversion and a precipitous fall in egg manufacturing. Fowl pox could have an effect on any age hen. It’s transmitted by direct contact with an contaminated hen or by mosquitos.
Coccidiosis is a protozoan illness characterised by enteritis and diarrhea in poultry. Not like the organisms which trigger many different poultry ailments, coccidia are virtually universally discovered wherever chickens are raised. Coccidiosis outbreaks fluctuate from very delicate to extreme infections.
Particular person strains of cocci assault birds otherwise, ensuing in various signs. The general signs could also be a number of of the next: bloody droppings, excessive mortality, normal droopiness, emaciation, a marked drop in feed consumption, diarrhea and a drop in egg manufacturing in layers.
It’s common to add a coccidiostat in the feed of broilers. As well as, dwell vaccines are at the moment obtainable.
Infectious bronchitis is a extremely contagious respiratory illness. The illness is attributable to a virus which is reasonably resistant, however may be destroyed by many frequent disinfectants.
Infectious bronchitis happens solely in chickens (Infectious bronchitis is completely different from Quail bronchitis which impacts Bobwhite Quail). All ages of chickens are vulnerable to infectious bronchitis. In laying hens it’s characterised by respiratory indicators (gasping, sneezing, coughing) and a marked lower in egg manufacturing.
Egg high quality can also be adversely affected. Low egg high quality and shell irregularities (soft-shelled or mis-shapened) could persist lengthy after an outbreak. Chickens which have had infectious bronchitis, particularly throughout the first week of life, could by no means be good layers.
There is no such thing as a efficient therapy for infectious bronchitis, though broad spectrum antibiotics for 3 to 5 days could support in controlling secondary bacterial infections. Vaccines can be utilized for prevention, however they’re solely efficient in the event that they comprise the suitable serotypes of virus for a given space. Infectious bronchitis vaccine is commonly mixed with Newcastle vaccine in the identical vial.
Newcastle illness is attributable to a virus. The viruses fluctuate in pathogenicity and are categorized as lentogenic (mildly virulent), mesogenic (reasonably virulent), and velogenic (markedly virulent).
Newcastle illness is characterised by a sudden onset and speedy unfold by means of the flock. In grownup laying hens scientific indicators can embrace despair, loss of urge for food, decreased water consumption, and a dramatic decline in egg manufacturing. Production could drop to zero.
Newcastle illness runs its course in 10 to 14 days, however the hens don’t come again into full manufacturing for five to 6 weeks.
There is no such thing as a therapy for Newcastle illness. Antibiotics may be given for 3 to 5 days to prevent secondary bacterial infections. Chickens and turkeys may be immunized towards Newcastle illness by vaccination.
Avian influenza is a viral illness affecting the respiratory, digestive and/or nervous techniques of many species of birds. Avian influenza viruses are categorized primarily based on severity of illness, starting from apathogenic to extremely pathogenic. The mildly pathogenic kind produces listlessness, respiratory indicators (sneezing, coughing), and diarrhea.
The extent of mortality is normally low. The extremely pathogenic kind of avian influenza produces facial swelling, cyanosis, and dehydration with respiratory misery. Darkish crimson/white spots (cyanosis/ischemia) develop on the legs and combs of chicks. Mortality can vary from low to close to 100%. The lower in egg manufacturing is expounded to the severity of the illness and may be extreme.
There is no such thing as a particular therapy for avian influenza. Restoration is reasonably spontaneous. Birds slaughtered 7 days after an infection usually don’t have any important enhance in condemnations.
flocks will probably be quarantined. Quarantine is sustained till the flock is depopulated. The course of the illness is 10 to 14 days, however recovered birds proceed to shed the avian influenza virus in feces for 3 or 4 weeks. Eggs from layers are protected to eat, however the shell must be washed and sanitized. The poultry litter or manure must be composted earlier than utility to cultivated lands.
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Avian encephalomyelitis (epidemic tremors) is a viral illness normally affecting younger poultry. It’s characterised by incoordination and tremors, particularly of the pinnacle and neck in chicks, and elevated mortality ranges. Chicks that get well could later develop cataracts after sexual maturity. In affected hens, decreases in egg manufacturing and hatchability are famous.
Laying hens seldom present scientific indicators when an infection goes by means of the flock. Nonetheless, good manufacturing information usually reveal a slight drop in egg manufacturing (5 to 20%) lasting not more than two weeks. In breeding flocks, a corresponding lower in hatchability can also be famous.
There is no such thing as a efficient therapy. All substitute breeder and layer pullets must be immunized.
Mycoplasma gallisepticum an infection
Mycoplasma gallisepticum an infection (continual respiratory illness, PPLO an infection, airsacculitis, MG) is characterised by respiratory misery (coughing, sneezing, snicks, rales, discharge from eyes and nostril). Feed consumption and egg manufacturing decline in laying hens. Mortality is normally low however there could also be many unthrifty birds.
The organism could also be current in a flock and trigger no illness till triggered by stress, e.g. adjustments in housing, administration, diet, or climate.
Many broad spectrum antibiotics have been used for therapy and will suppress losses.
Nonetheless, relapses usually happen when therapy is discontinued. Most antibiotics are given in feed or water, ideally in water. Tylosine and tetracyclines have been used extensively for therapy. Injectable antibiotics could also be more practical if the illness is superior and if the flock is sufficiently small to be handled individually.
FDA withdrawal intervals for respective medicines used have to be strictly noticed to keep away from residual chemical compounds in the eggs and meat. Reside and inactivated vaccines are also generally used to scale back the opposed results of the illness.
Fowl cholera is an infectious bacterial illness of poultry. With an acute outbreak, sudden surprising deaths happen in the flock. Laying hens could also be discovered useless on the nest. Sick birds present anorexia, despair, cyanosis, rales, discharge from eyes and nostril, white watery or inexperienced mucoid diarrhea, and egg manufacturing is decreased.
As fowl cholera turns into continual, chickens develop abscessed wattles and swelling of joints and foot pads. Tacky pus could accumulate in the sinuses underneath the eyes.
Flocks may be handled with a sulfa drug. Sulfa medicine are usually not accredited to be used in pullets older than 14 weeks or for business laying hens. Sulfa medicine trigger residues in meat and eggs. Extended use of sulfa medicine is poisonous and causes a lower in manufacturing in laying hens. Antibiotics can be utilized, however require increased ranges and longer medicine to cease the outbreak.
The place fowl cholera is endemic, dwell and/or inactivated vaccines are really useful. Don’t begin vaccinating for fowl cholera till it turns into an issue on the farm and a analysis is confirmed.
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Coryza is a respiratory illness of chickens. Frequent scientific indicators embrace swelling and puffiness across the face and wattles, a thick sticky discharge with a attribute offensive odor from the nostrils, labored respiratory, and rales. There’s a drop in feed and water consumption in addition to egg manufacturing.
Sulfadimethoxine is the popular therapy for infectious coryza. If Albon fails or is just not obtainable, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, or erythromycin (Gallimycin) can be utilized as various therapies. The sulfa medicine are usually not accredited for pullets older than 14 weeks or for business laying hens.
A vaccine for infectious coryza is accessible. It’s given subcutaneously (underneath the pores and skin) on the again of the neck. Chicks are normally vaccinated 4 instances, beginning at 5 weeks of age (i.e., at 5, 9, 15, and 19 weeks with at the very least 4 weeks between injections). Vaccinate once more at 10 months of age and twice yearly thereafter.
Different Issues to Think about
There are a selection of different issues which might trigger an obvious drop in egg manufacturing. They embrace:
1. Predators and snakes consuming the eggs.
2. Egg-eating by hens in the flock.
3. Extreme egg breakage.
4. Hens that are in a position to run free hiding the eggs as a substitute of laying in nests.
There are quite a few components which can adversely have an effect on egg manufacturing in yard hen flocks. If a drop in egg manufacturing happens, examine the trigger by answering questions that comply with; additionally submit sick and just lately useless birds to a diagnostic lab, and/or seek the advice of together with your animal agent or a veterinarian.
1. How previous are the birds?
2. How a lot feed are the birds consuming each day?
3. Has the extent of feed consumption modified these days?
4. Has there been a change in the sort of feed used?
5. Is the feed moldy?
6. How a lot gentle do the birds obtain each day? Has it modified?
7. What’s the gentle supply?
8. What’s the situation of the poultry homes?
9. Are the birds getting sufficient clear water?
10. What’s the situation of the birds?
11. How energetic are the birds?
12. What’s shell high quality like?
13. What’s inside egg high quality like?
14. Are there any indicators of illness?
15. Are the birds crowded?
16. Are there any indicators of parasites?
17. Do the birds have entry to completely different crops?
18. Have any pesticides or herbicides been used in the realm?
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