Home Crop Monitoring Crop Rotation: Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

Crop Rotation: Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

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The apply of rising totally different sorts of crops, one by one, in a particular sequence on the identical piece of land is known as crop rotation. In designing an excellent crop rotation, the farmers should resolve what crops to have within the rotation, in what sequence the crops ought to happen, and for what number of years or season every cycle of the rotation should run.

A very good rotation that gives for
upkeep or enchancment of soil productiveness normally features a
legume crop to advertise fixation of nitrogen, a grass or legume sod
crop for upkeep of humus, a cultivated or inter-tilled crop for
weed management and fertilizer. Perennial legumes and grasses could depart
2 to three tons of dry weight per acre of roots residues within the soil when
plowed down.

Elements that Have an effect on Crop Rotation

The selection of a rotation for a
specific farm relies upon upon the next:

  1. Adaptation of the crops to a specific soil, local weather, and financial situations.
  2. Prevalence of weeds, plant ailments, and insect pests can also restrict the sorts of crops that may be grown in a locality.
  3. Crops could also be chosen for rotation in order to unfold labor all year long.

Elements
to Think about in Deciding the Sequence of Crops (Rules of Crop
Rotation)

  • The goal crop (the primary crop) needs to be planted instantly after the legumes or fallow interval. At a time the fertility of the soil is at its peak and the optimum realization yield of the goal crop is feasible. Crops that are recognized to have a excessive demand for vitamins are additionally timed for the primary season after the fallow.
  • Crops that are deep feeders ought to alternate with shallow feeders. On this manner, nutrient removing happens uniformly from the assorted soil layers somewhat than occurring in just one layer.
  • Crops which might be botanically comparable or are more likely to be attacked by the identical ailments and pests shouldn’t usually observe one another within the rotation. Yams, for instance, shouldn’t observe cowpeas in rotation if the root-knot nematode is prevalent, because the nematodes left over from the cowpea crop will severely scale back yam yields. Nevertheless, if the nematodes drawback doesn’t exist within the space, yam may conveniently observe cowpeas.
  • The variety of years for which every cycle of the rotation ought to run is decided by the variety of crops within the rotation, the size of their rising seasons and how frequent the farmer can develop the goal crop with out operating into issues of illness and soil fertility. For instance, the time interval between the harvesting of the goal crop and its being planted once more on the identical piece of land needs to be lengthy sufficient to stop the carryover of pathogens in crop residues from one cycle to the following.
Crop Rotation: Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

Learn Additionally: The Definition and Classifications of Cropping System

Sorts of Crop Rotation

In planning crop rotation, the farmer
could resolve to contemplate his complete subject as one plot. He then rotates
the crops in sequence on the sector. At any given time, there’s solely
a crop on a subject, and that crop wouldn’t return once more till the
subsequent cycle some years later. That is generally practiced in Northern
Nigeria.

Instance of a 3-year crop rotation as
practiced in Savanna zone of Nigeria.

Desk
2.1

Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3
Winter (with irrigation) Rice Greens Wheat
Summer time (Wet season) Cotton Groundnut/maize Beans/millet

This technique, nonetheless, has sure
disadvantages:

  • The rising of 1 crop signifies that
    the demand for labour happens in peaks. Labour demand is extra evenly
    unfold if many crops are grown concurrently.
  • The chance of crop failure is ever
    current, and the danger is larger the place just one crop is grown.
  • Since every crop happens on the farm
    solely as soon as each a number of years, specialised amenities for the goal
    crop, can solely be utilized as soon as in a number of years, a scenario which
    is unquestionably inefficient.

Most farmers who apply crop
rotation discover it extra handy to divide their subject into as many
plots as there are years within the rotation.

The farmer then begins with a
totally different crop on every plot and progress by the rotation. Within the
crops are current on the farm at any given time. Instance of such sort
of rotation is given beneath.

Instance of a 3-years crop rotation
present in guinea savanna area of West Africa

Desk
2.2

Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3
Plot A Cotton Guinea corn Groundnuts
Plot B Guinea corn Groundnuts Cotton
Plot C Groundnuts Cotton Guinea corn

Advantages

  • It’s an efficient technique of
    controlling ailments and pest. The pathogens and pests of a
    specific crop usually tend to die off when their host crop is
    adopted by a totally totally different non-host crop. Many bugs are
    harmful to just one form of crop. The life cycle is damaged when
    crops grown are unfavorable to the event of the insect pest.
    Cotton root-knot might be diminished by the expansion of immune crops within the
    rotation.
  • Crop rotation is the best
    sensible technique for controlling many farm weeds. Some weeds are
    significantly tailored to cultivated crops, the absence of such host
    crop within the subject for a few years on account of rotation, successfully
    management the weeds. Rotation could embody smother crop as a method of
    controlling sure weeds.
  • The kind of crop rotation the place the
    subject is split into a number of plots, provides the farmer some
    insurance coverage in opposition to crop failure, and permits him to unfold out his
    labour wants.
  • Crop rotation is an efficient means
    of decreasing erosion compared with steady cropping. Grass
    legumes mixtures in a rotation have been very efficient within the
    discount of abrasion.

Associated: Adaptive Technique of Animals Dealing with the Atmosphere

Associated: Developments in Crop Manufacturing Nationally and Globally

Associated: Document Preserving in Business Pig Farming

Learn Additionally: Really useful Toolss and Instruments Wanted in Snail Farming Enterprise

Learn Additionally: Mechanism of Animal Physique Protection in opposition to Stress

Learn Additionally: 7 Wonderful Well being Advantages of Cherries

Learn Additionally: 22 Excessive Fiber Meals we’ve got and their Contents

Learn Additionally: 21 Wonderful Dietary and Well being Advantages of Orange Juice

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