Base on advice for the very best pond for you in establishing your fish farm, then you might want to think about all the benefits and drawbacks of every of the categories after which determine on which sort is extra appropriate for you close to the extent of fish farm you wish to embark on.
If you already know you don’t have entry to a swampy space, then routinely go for a concrete pond.
The price of digging an earthen pond and people of setting up its concrete pond equivalence is virtually the identical so none is higher than the opposite on the long term, it largely is determined by what you actually need and the administration practices contain.
There are mainly two sorts of pond methods viz;
i. Earthen or pure sort and
ii. Concrete sort.
We even have the plastic sort, metallic sort, glass sort, wood sort and many others.
Earthen or pure sort ponds
The placement for earthen pond is restricted to space the place there is clay soil and underground water or a flowing stream. It is due to this fact sited in swampy space the place clear recent water is obtainable.
The pond is all the time a dug-out sort to a median of 1.5m depth. The dugout soil is used to construct dyke around the pond to stop flooding throughout wet season and the water of an earthen pond is usually 1.2m deep.
Earthen pond might be contour or a dugout pond. The previous is constructed within the slope of a highland with clay soil and close by stream, whereas the later is constructed in a flat swampy land which might both be dry or moist and water allowed to naturally stream from underground within the pond.
Benefits/Disadvantages of earthen pond
Among the benefits of this kind of ponds are:
i. It is comparatively cheaper to assemble.
ii. It has massive stocking capability.
iii. Fish stay in pure setting.
iv. Fish development is fast
v. Excessive revenue margin could also be envisaged.
i. The main shortcoming of this kind of pond is want for fencing and safety guards.
ii. Flooding might happen if the dyke is not correctly constructed throughout building and if not managed might result in fish escape, pond water air pollution, and even whole collapse of the earthen pond.
iii. Sorting could also be troublesome in earthen pond.
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Earthen pond based mostly on water provide
There are two main ponds based mostly on water provide, viz:
This sort of pond is constructed alongside the primary path of stream of stream or river water. Each up-stream and down-stream are barricaded with inlet and outlet respectively.
The benefit of this pond is its low building value and ample quantity of water all by way of the tradition interval.
The failure related to this sort of pond is the probability of flooding through the wet season and the entire pond system might be washed away together with the shares.
Diversion or Contour pond
This sort of pond is constructed within the by-pass of a stream or river. A water provide channel is constructed for this objective with sluice or inlet gate on the entrance to regulate the quantity of water coming in or going out of the pond and likewise to the inflow of extraneous supplies. On this case, flood impact is minimal in comparison with barrage sort.
Kinds of Diversion pond
This ponds are constructed such that every pond derives its water provide from the opposite and likewise empty into one other. This is the worst method to pond design, therefore it is not beneficial, as no matter impacts one would positively have an effect on the opposite.
Ponds constructed this fashion are unbiased of one one other of their sources of water provide and discharge. All actions regarding filling and drainage of water are restricted to every pond respectively.
On this work, emphasis might be laid on the design of a parallel concrete fish pond.
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Kinds of ponds based mostly on utilization
This is used to carry fish temporally in readiness for both transportation or fattening for induced breeding objective.
Used to carry the set of fish supposed for synthetic propagation.
Used to carry fishes both of the identical intercourse or the identical species.
Used to nurse the fry produced throughout induced breeding into fingerlings.
Develop out pond:
Used to boost fingerlings to desk dimension fish.
Concrete as a cloth for fish pond building
Because the title implies, concrete ponds are constructed utilizing cement, blocks and combination of appropriate ratio. Concrete pond might be categorized in three alternative ways viz: stagnant concrete pond , free stream concrete pond and water re-circulatory concrete pond.
Stagnant concrete pond
Within the stagnant concrete pond, water within the pond is seldom changed. No water stream out channel is offered throughout building. Water alternative is based mostly on when it is polluted and a pumping machine is employed for the aim.
The pond is cheaper to assemble with limitation in amount of fish stocking capability. A pond of 2m x 5m capability might not inventory greater than 600 fish. Fish development will not be quick as anticipated as a consequence of poor water situation. It might elongate to as much as 9 months to succeed in the specified desk dimension of 1.0kg.
Free stream concrete pond
This sort of pond is appropriate for fast response grow-out fish and the scope of this work might be centered on this technique of pond. The development consists of water flow-out channel. Water stream is regulated and steady at stipulated interval.
This ensures water freshness and turbulent that makes the fish agile for improved feeding fee. A free stream concrete pond of 2mx5m capability might inventory between 1,000 and 1,800 fishes given house requirement of between 0.005m2 to 0.01m2 per grownup catfish.
The main downside of the pond is that water wastage could also be on the excessive aspect. This might be possible the place fixed water provide is assured.
Water re-circulatory concrete pond
The development of this kind of pond embody full water refining (filtration) system. The system includes excessive water effectivity. Water in storage tanks at elevated peak flows freely into the pond.
Waste water out of the pond is both saved in one other chamber or handed immediately by way of a bio-filter re-circulation and it is a steady motion.
This sort of pond is probably the most superior by way of water effectivity, stocking capability, water high quality and proportion of dissolved oxygen within the pond water amongst different attributes and derivable advantages however have a really excessive preliminary value of building and gear advantages acquisition.
Upkeep value is additionally excessive. There might be want for clear out of the pond as soon as some time to take away collected strong wastes from the underside of the pond.
Above all, derivable advantages out methods the preliminary capital value by way of stocking capability, sooner fish grow-out and water consumed might be much less.
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Significance of concrete fish pond
i. Concrete fish ponds are often constructed for the aim of culturing fish had been flowing streams of water or river is not obtainable.
Therefore, concrete fish ponds afford us the chance of culturing fish round our properties and fast environment akin to college and school premises, workplace areas, industrial and business facilities and many others.
ii. It may be constructed purposely for storing stay fish until wanted. Such life fish should have reached desk dimension (that is a minimum of 400-500 grams in weight) earlier than storage.
iii. Concrete fish ponds are additionally helpful for fingerlings manufacturing particularly within the case of fish species which breed simply in captivity e.g. Tilapia species, clarias species.
Design of Synthetic Fish Pond
The most well-liked sorts of synthetic fish ponds are wood (vats) and those made with blocks and concrete combine.
Vats or wood sort of fish pond
This is mainly the usage of wooden for synthetic fish pond building. It is one of probably the most cheap supplies however does require a coating to stop rotting and seepage. Plywood of both 1.3 or 1.6cm thick is usually used.
Nevertheless, a 12ft x 3ft with a peak of 1ft or 12ft x 3ft with a peak of 2ft or 12ft x 4ft with a peak of 2ft employed for the design and building of vat is able to housing 1500 fries, 800 fingerlings, and 350 desk sized cat fish respectively.
Structural members are mounted between the rings at roughly 30cm spacing for a 1m depth pond. Spacing of vertical members varies relying on water depth within the pond and the thickness of plywood, the additional aside the vertical helps could also be positioned.
Structural helps are additionally mandatory throughout the pond backside except the pond is positioned on a strong basis and never moved. All the pond must be coated with epoxy or different non poisonous sealer.
Alternatively, by masking the inside floor with tarpaulin. Coating the outside prevents sluggish deterioration of the wooden from excessive humidity and splashed water.
An exterior coating, however most pond life might be achieved by coating the outside. The pond inside should have at-least one coat of sealing materials and could also be extra (relying on the coating materials used).
Ponds as much as at-least 1.25m deep and greater than 2.5m lengthy will want heavier prime and backside rings or helps throughout the middle of those rings. Nevertheless, the design of epoxy-coated plywood ponds can’t be based mostly solely on allowable stress.
Pressure have to be minimized as a result of many coating supplies are extremely brittle. Pressure or flexure of the pond partitions underneath load will crack many epoxy coatings. The ensuing leaks usually create a large number at finest, and a fish killed as a consequence of lack of water at worst.
Even when a leak doesn’t develop, water will get into the plywood, inflicting fast deterioration and finally pond failure.
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Block and concrete combine (Concrete fish pond)
Design and building of concrete fish pond contain the next:
i. Web site choice
Concrete fish pond might be sited in any open house close to one’s fast surrounding offered the house is free from shade, and efficient safety might be assured.
ii. Excavation of concrete fish ponds
So as to stop rise within the temperature of water, particularly within the decrease a part of the concrete fish pond, the decrease 60cm (2ft) must be sunk within the floor.
This means that the entire space to be occupied by the concrete must be excavated to a depth of about 60cm earlier than laying the muse blocks.
Alternatively, the location could also be excavated. In such a case, a thick layer of soil must be packed across the base of the concrete fish pond, masking its decrease 60cm.
iii. Erection of the partitions
In contrast to earthen ponds, the partitions of a concrete fish ponds are often constructed with concrete blocks. The concrete blocks used for the development are often bolstered (that is crammed with concrete or sandcrete).
This may strengthen the partitions thereby enabling them to face up to the stress of the water which the concrete fish pond would require.
Additionally, as discovered mandatory, pillars must be put in alongside the partitions at appropriate intervals to stop cracking of the partitions.
iv. Set up of water inlet, water outlet and overflow pipe
After the partitions of the concrete fish pond have been erected the water inlet and outlet must be put in. It (concrete fish pond) has neither a monk or a spillway (except the concrete fish pond is a big one).
As an alternative, it has an overflow pipe for eliminating extra water so as to forestall overflowing which often brings about lack of fish.
For an overflow pipe to be efficient in stopping overflowing of pond water, its dimension or diameter must be larger than that of the inlet pipe. The overflow pipe must be screened so as to stop lack of fish.
Each the internal and outer surfaces of the partitions of concrete fish pond must be plastered with mortar to additional strengthen the partitions and likewise stop lack of pond water by way of leakage.
vi. The Flooring
The ground of concrete fish pond must be manufactured from concrete so as to stop lack of pond water by way of seepage. The ground ought to slope gently in direction of the water outlet so as to facilitate drainage of the pond water.
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