Home Crop Monitoring How to construct your poultry pen

How to construct your poultry pen

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Several types of poultry homes

  • Brooder / chick house-It’s used to brood and rear egg-type chicks from 0 to 8 weeks of age.
  • Grower house-It’s used to develop egg-type birds from 9 to 18 weeks of age.
  • Brooders cum grower house-Right here, the birds are reared from 0 to 18 weeks of age (complete brooding and rising interval of egg-type hen).
  • Layer house-By which birds over 18 weeks of age are reared, normally up to 72 weeks of age.
  • Broiler house-By which broilers are reared up to 6 weeks of age.
  • Breeder house-By which each female and male breeders are maintained at acceptable intercourse ratio.
  • Environmentally managed (EC) house-By which, complete setting is manipulated in such a means that’s optimum for the birds progress.

Optimum environmental situations for rearing broilers

Temperature    – 22-300C (70-850F)
Relative Humidity    – 30-60 %
Ammonia stage    – Lower than 25 ppm
Litter moisture    – 15-25%
Air circulation   – 10-30 metres/minute

Home Orientation (Path)

The poultry home ought to be positioned in such a means that lengthy axis is in east-west path.  It will forestall the direct sunshine over the birds.


Every broiler require one sq. foot of flooring area whereas a layer requires two sq. ft of flooring area beneath deep-litter system of rearing.  So the dimensions of the home is dependent upon the variety of birds to be reared.


The size of the home might be of any extent.  The variety of birds reared and availability of the land determines the size of poultry home.


The open sided poultry homes in tropical nations ought to have a width no more than 22 to 25 ft so as to enable ample air flow and aeration on the mid-portion.  Sheds wider than this won’t present sufficient air flow throughout the scorching climate.

If the width of the shed is greater than 25 ft, ridge air flow on the center line of the roof high with correct overhang is a should.  Sizzling air and obnoxious gases that are lighter than air transfer upward and escape by means of ridge air flow.

In environmentally managed poultry homes, the width of the home could also be even 40 ft or extra because the air flow is managed with the assistance of exhaust followers.


The peak of the edges from basis to the roof line ought to be 6 to 7 ft (eaves top) and on the centre 10 to 12 ft.  In case of cage homes, the peak is set by the kind of cage preparations (3 tier or 4 tier).


Good basis is important to forestall seepage of water into the poultry sheds.  The inspiration of the home ought to of concrete with 1 to 1.5 ft under the floor and 1 to 1.5 ft above the bottom stage.


The ground ought to be manufactured from concrete with rat proof gadget and free from dampness.  The ground of the home ought to be prolonged 1.5 ft exterior the wall on all sides to forestall rat and snake issues.


The door have to be open exterior in case of deep-litter poultry homes. The scale of door is ideally 6 x 2.5 ft.  On the entry, a foot tub ought to be constructed to fill with a disinfectant.

Aspect partitions

The facet wall ought to be of 1-1.5 ft top, and usually on the stage of chicken’s again top.  This facet wall protects the chicken throughout wet days or chill local weather and in addition supplies adequate air flow.  In case of cage homes, no facet wall is required.


The roof of the poultry home could also be thatched, tiled, asbestos or concrete one relying upon the associated fee involvement. Several types of roofs are Shed, Gable, half-monitor, full-monitor (Monitor), Flat concrete, Gambrel, Gothic and many others.  Gable kind is usually most well-liked in tropical nations like India.


The overhang of the roof shouldn’t be lower than 3.5 ft so as to forestall the entry of rain water into the shed.


Gentle ought to be offered at 7-8 ft above the bottom stage and have to be hanged from ceiling.  If incandescent bulbs are used, the interval between two bulbs is 10 ft.  In case of fluorescent lights (tube lights) the interval is 15 ft.

Learn Additionally: Finest Sort of Poultry to Elevate for Industrial Manufacturing and their Time of Maturity

Methods of Poultry Housing

Poultry might be housed beneath totally different methods primarily based on following elements,

  1. Availability of land
  2. Value of land
  3. Sort of farming exercise
  4. Climatic situation
  5. Labour availability

Broadly, poultry housing methods are categorized into three methods:

    1. Free vary or in depth system
    2. Semi-intensive system
    3. Intensive system:
      1. Deep-litter system
      2. Slatted flooring system
      3. Slat cum litter system
      4. Cage system

1) Free vary system

This technique is adopted solely when sufficient land is out there to guarantee desired stocking density by avoiding overcrowding. We will rear about 250 grownup birds per hectare.

A variety supplies shelter, greens, feed, water and shade.  Foraging is the main supply of feeding for birds.  Shelter is normally offered by momentary roofing supported by atypical poles.

The fields are typically used on rotational foundation after harvesting of crops by transferring of birds from one discipline to one other relying on cropping programme. All classes of birds might be reared on this system.  This technique is most most well-liked for natural egg manufacturing.


  • Much less capital funding
  • Value of housing is least.
  • Feed necessities are much less since birds can eat pretty good quantity of feed from grass land.
  • Fertility of soil might be maintained.


  • The scientific administration practices cannot be adopted.
  • Eggs are misplaced when laid contained in the dense grasses until particular nests are offered.
  • Losses due to predatory animals are extra.
  • Wild birds might carry ailments until correct care is taken.

2) Semi-intensive system

Because the identify signifies birds are half-way reared in homes and half-way on floor or vary, i.e. birds are confined to homes in night time or as per want and they’re additionally given entry to runs.  The homes are with stable flooring whereas runs are fields solely.

The success of rearing is dependent upon upkeep of situation of runs to scale back the contamination.  Runs will also be used on flip foundation.  The stocking density charge on a mean for grownup birds is 750 per hectare.

This technique is normally adopted for duck rearing.  The feeding and watering services are offered within the pen.


  • Extra economical use of land in contrast to free vary system
  • Safety of birds from excessive weather conditions
  • Management over scientific operation is a few extent attainable


  • Excessive price for fencing.
  • Want for routine cleansing and removing of litter materials from the pen.

3) Intensive system

Birds are completely confined to homes both on floor / flooring or on wire-netting flooring in cages or on slats.  It’s the most effective, handy and economical system for contemporary poultry manufacturing with enormous numbers.


  • Minimal land is required for farming.
  • Farms might be positioned close to market space.
  • Day-to-day administration is simpler.
  • The manufacturing efficiency is increased as extra vitality is saved due to restricted actions.
  • Scientific administration practices like breeding, feeding, remedy, culling and many others. might be utilized simply and precisely.
  • The sick birds might be detected, remoted and handled simply.


  • Birds’ welfare is affected.  They can’t carry out the pure behaviour like roosting, spreading wings, scratching the ground with legs and many others.
  • Since they don’t seem to be uncovered to exterior daylight and feed sources, all of the vitamins ought to be offered in balanced method to keep away from nutritionally poor ailments.
  • Probabilities for spreading of ailments are extra.

Deep Litter System

On this system the birds are saved inside the home on a regular basis.  Association for feed, water and nest are made inside the home.  The birds are saved on appropriate litter materials of about 3” to 5” depth.  The phrase litter is used for recent litter materials unfold on the ground.

Normally paddy husk, noticed mud, floor nut hulls, chopped paddy straw or wooden shavings are used as litter supplies.  This association saves labour concerned in frequent cleansing of faecal matter (droppings), nonetheless it wants periodical stirring.  The litter is unfold on the ground in layers of two” top each fortnightly until the required is achieved.

Learn Additionally: Finest Sort of Poultry to Elevate for Industrial Manufacturing and their Time of Maturity

poultrypoultry pen


  • Vit B2 and Vit B12 are made out there to birds from the litter materials by the bacterial motion.
  • The welfare of birds is maintained to some lengthen
  • The deep litter manure is a helpful fertilizer.
  • Lesser nuisance from flies when put next to cage system.


  • Due to the direct contact between chicken and litter, bacterial and parasitic illness could also be an issue.
  • Respiratory issues might emerge due to mud from the litter.
  • The price of litter is a further expenditure on manufacturing price.
  • Faults in air flow can have extra severe penalties than within the cage system

The constructed up litter

Deep litter or constructed up litter is accumulation and decomposition of litter materials and excreta till it reaches a depth of 8” to 12”, after an authentic begin of three” to 5” depth.  Bacterial motion decomposes litter and excreta into crumble type and warmth is produced throughout decomposition which retains litter dry and heat.

If the quantity of droppings exceeds the litter, recent litter shall be added to decrease the quantity of droppings.  Periodical stirring of the litter ought to be carried out for an efficient functioning of built-up litter.

After one 12 months, the litter is modified and the decomposed litter is used pretty much as good high quality manure.  The perfect built-up litter ought to be dry, friable and free from obnoxious odour.

Slatted (Slotted) Flooring System

In a slatted flooring, iron rods or wooden reapers are used as flooring, normally 2-3 ft above the bottom stage to facilitate fall of droppings by means of slats.  Wood reapers or iron rods of two” diameter can be utilized on lengthwise of the home with interspaces of 1” between rods.


  • Much less flooring area per chicken is required when put next to stable flooring system.
  • Bedding is eradicated
  • Manure dealing with is prevented
  • Elevated sanitation
  • Saving in labour
  • Soil borne an infection is managed


  • Increased preliminary price than typical stable flooring
  • Much less flexibility in the usage of the constructing
  • Any spilled feed is misplaced by means of the slots
  • Extra fly downside.

Slat (Slot) Cum Litter System

This technique is often practiced for rearing birds for hatching eggs manufacturing, significantly meat-type breeders.  Right here, part of the ground space is roofed with slats.

Normally, 60% of the ground space is roofed with slats and relaxation with litter. Feeders and waterers are organized in each slat and litter space.  In case of breeder flock, nest bins are normally saved on litter space.


  • Extra eggs might be produced per unit of flooring area than all stable flooring.
  • Fertility is best with the slat cum litter home than with the all-slat home.


  • Housing funding is increased with the slat cum litter home than with the all-litter home.
  • The separation of birds from the manure beneath the slats generally leads to fly issues.

    Cage System

This technique entails rearing of poultry on raised wire netting flooring in smaller compartments, known as cages, both fitted with stands on flooring of home or hanged from the roof.  It has been proved very environment friendly for laying operations, proper from day-old to until disposal.

At current, 75% of business layers on the planet are saved in cages. Feeders and waterers are hooked up to cages from exterior besides nipple waterers, for which pipeline is put in by means of or above cages.

Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg assortment belts will also be used on this rearing system.  The droppings are both collected in trays beneath cages or on belts or on the ground or deep pit beneath cages, relying on kind of cages.

How to construct your poultry penHow to construct your poultry pen


  • Minimal flooring area is required
  • Extra variety of eggs per hen might be obtained
  • Much less feed wastage
  • Higher feed effectivity
  • Safety from inside parasites and soil borne sicknesses
  • Sick and unproductive birds might be simply recognized and eradicated.
  • Clear eggs manufacturing
  • Vices like egg consuming, pecking is minimal.
  • Broodiness is minimal
  • No want of litter materials
  • Synthetic Insemination (AI) might be adopted.


  • Excessive preliminary funding price.
  • Dealing with of manure could also be downside. Typically, flies turn into a better nuisance.
  • The incidence of blood spots in egg is extra
  • Downside of cage layer fatigue. (It’s a situation, wherein laying birds in cages develop lameness.  It might be due to Ca and P deficiency however the actual purpose isn’t recognized)
  • In case of broilers, incidence of breast blisters is extra, particularly when the broilers weight is greater than 1.5 kg.

Sorts of cages

Primarily based on the variety of birds in a cage, it’s categorized as

  • Single or particular person chicken cage (Just one chicken in a cage)
  • A number of chicken cage (From 2 to 10 birds, normally 3 or 4 birds per cage)
  • Colony cages (Holding birds greater than 11 per cage)

Primarily based on the variety of rows

  • Single-deck
  • Double-deck
  • Triple-deck
  • 4-deck
  • Flat-deck

poultry farmer

Primarily based on association of cages


1) Stair-step cages

poultry farmer
a) M-type cages
b) L-type cages

2) Battery cages (Vertical cages)

                         poultry farmer

Primarily based on the kind of chicken reared

  1. Brooder / chick cages
  2. Grower cages
  3. Layer cages
  4. Breeder cages

Broiler cages

1) Brooder cage / chick cage

brooder cage

Brooder cage

Specs:    Entrance feeding size     : 60 inch
Entrance & Again top     : 12 inch
Depth                        : 36 inch
No. of chicks (0-8 weeks) accommodated per field   :   60

Chick cages are organized both as single deck or double deck system.  The feeders and waterers are organized on exterior.

Now-a-days nipple drinker system is adopted from day-old itself. Newspaper could also be unfold over the cage flooring for first 7 or 10 days. Feed is normally offered contained in the cage throughout the first week of age.

2) Grower cage

grower cage grower cage

Grower cage

Grower cage

Specs:    Entrance feeding size     : 30 inch
Entrance & Again top     : 15 inch
Depth                        : 18 inch
No. of growers (9 to 18 weeks) accommodated per field   : 10

3) Layer cage

Two varieties of stair-step layer cages are generally utilized in open-sided poultry homes

  1. Typical cages
  2. Reverse cages (Californian cages)

a) Typical cages
How to construct your poultry pen
Specs for every field:

Entrance feeding size     : 15 inch
Entrance top                : 18 inch
Again top                : 15 inch
Depth                        : 18 inch

b) Reverse cages

Specs for every field: Entrance feeding size     : 18 inch
Entrance top                : 18 inch
Again top                : 15 inch
Depth                        : 15 inch

These cages can maintain 3 to 4 birds.  They’re organized both in 2-tier or 3-tier.  A slope of 1/6 is offered in typical cages, the place as in reverse cages the slope is 1/5.

Benefits of reverse cages over typical cages

  1. Extra feeding area is out there in reverse cages.  So, all 4 birds can take feed at a time, the place as in typical cages, 3 birds can take feed and the opposite one is ready on the again.
  2. Variety of cracked eggs is much less due to lesser rolling distance.
  3. Higher air flow in reverse cages than typical cages.

Elevated cage layer home

The peak of the shed is raised by 6-7 ft utilizing concrete pillars.  The gap between two pillars is 10 ft.  Two ft extensive concrete platforms are revamped the pillars.  When 3 ‘M’ kind cages are organized 4 platforms are wanted.  In case of two ‘M’ and a pair of ‘L’ kind cages are organized 3 platforms are wanted.

When developing platforms projecting angles or iron rods to be offered to repair the cages.  The inter-platform distance is 6-7 ft relying upon the kind of the cages used.  The overall top of the home is 20-25 ft and the width is 30-33 ft.  The sort of homes supplies adequate air flow in tropical nations.

Learn Additionally: Causes of Vent Pecking, Prolapsed Vent and Cannibalism amongst Poultry Birds

How to construct your poultry penHow to construct your poultry pen

Flooring area necessities

Sort Age
(in weeks)
Egg-type hen 0-8 0.60 0.20
9-18 1.25 0.30
>18 1.50 0.50
Meat-type hen 0-4 0.30
4-8 0.75


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