Home Crop Monitoring Inter-Cropping and Types as a Cropping System

Inter-Cropping and Types as a Cropping System

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The apply of rising one crop selection in pure stands on a area is referred to as sole cropping. On this apply, just one crop selection occupies the land at a time.

In the meantime, The choice apply of rising two or extra crops concurrently on the identical area is known as inter-cropping. The varied crops within the inter-crop don’t essentially need to be sown or harvested on the similar time, the principle requirement is that they’re on the sector on the similar time for a important a part of their rising durations.

Types
of inter-cropping

  1. Row inter-cropping: that is when the
    varied crops are grown in separate rows
  2. Combined cropping: that is when the
    varied crops are grown intermingled roughly at random with
    one another.
  3. Relay inter-cropping: that is when a
    second crop selection is sown between the stands of an current sole
    crop simply earlier than the primary crop is harvested. As such, each the
    first and second crops spend most of their area as sole crop, and
    develop collectively on the sector for under a transient interval.

Learn Additionally: The Definitions and Classifications of Cropping System

Elements that decide the crops mixture and spatial association

  • Tillage practices: when ridges have
    been made, the , the spatial association of the assorted crops could also be
    decided by explicit wants of every crop. For instance, yam which
    requires a deep layer of tilled soil, is planted on the prime of the
    mounds, whereas rice due to its excessive moisture requirement, is
    planted within the decrease floor between the mounds. Different crops such as
    maize, pumpkins and melons are planted at intermediate positions
    between the rice and the yams.
  • The crop the farmers considers as
    goal crop and which one is taken into account a subsidiary affect the
    proportion of the crops.
  • Nature of the crops themselves: a few
    strands of pumpkin or melon occupy a lit of land and have excessive
    financial yield, whereas rice strands, foe instance, must be
    far more quite a few to be significant.

Associated: Tendencies in Crop Manufacturing Nationally and Globally

Evaluating yield from inter-cropping

The relative yield of every part crop in an inter-cropping state of affairs is the yield of that part within the inter-cropping state of affairs divided by what that crop would have yielded as a sole crop, masking the identical space as the inter-crop and managed on the similar stage.

Suppose, for instance, that a area with a crop mixture of maize and cow-peas yields 1.5 tonnes/hectare of maize and 0.25 tonnes/ha. Of cow-peas. If the anticipated sole crop yield of maize is 2.0 t/ha and that of cow-peas is 0.5 t/ha. Then the relative yield of maize is 1.5/2.0 =0.75 and the relative yield of cow-peas is 0.25/0.50=0.50.

The sum of the relative yields of the assorted part crops within the inter-crops within the inter-crop is typically referred to as the relative yield whole. Just a little reflection of what number of instances the land space used for inter-crop could be required to produced the identical yields of the part crops when they’re grown as sole crops. The relative yield whole is subsequently extra conventionally referred to as land equal ratio (LER).

Inter-Cropping
Inter-Cropping

Mathematically:

LER = relative yield of crop A and
relative yield of crop B + relative yield of crop n

Within the maize/cow-peas mixture thought-about above the LER = 0.75 + 0.25 = 1.25. An LER higher than 1.0 implies that for that individual crop mixture, inter-cropping yielding greater than rising the identical variety of stands every crop as sole crops. An LER of lower than 1.0 implies that the inter-cropping was much less helpful than cropping.

LER will also be calculated based mostly on the financial worth of the yield obtained from the assorted inter-crop and sole crop state of affairs and make comparisons on the premise.

Calculating LER by evaluating the whole power worth of the yield in kilo energy in varied conditions and in contrast the values to find out which association was most helpful.

Learn Additionally: Benefits of Steady Cropping as a Sort of Cropping System

Benefits
of inter-cropping

  • In a fastidiously deliberate inter-cropping
    the LER is normally higher than one. Which means there’s yield
    benefit in rising crops collectively than rising every one
    individually. This benefit might rise from a number of sources.
  • The crops might complement each other
    of their use of area time. The interval of their peak calls for for
    mild, water, vitamins and different assets might differ, in order that in
    common there’s a extra environment friendly utilization of the assets
    accessible. For instance, throughout the two or three month that yam takes
    to sprout and set up adequately on the sector, a fast inter-crop
    of maize or melon would beneficially make the most of the sector assets
    throughout this era.
  • The part crop might complement
    one another of their use of house. For instance, an inter-crop of a
    deep rooted crop can exploit varied horizons of the soil.
  • An inter-crops might be able to
    utilized assets which the principle crop might not have the ability to utilized
    or which can even be disadvantageous to it.
  • Sure crops might exert particular
    helpful impact on others. For instance, plantains inter-cropped
    with younger cocoa seedlings present shade for the seedlings.
    Equally, in an inter-crop of a legume with a cereal crop, the
    cereal would profit from the nitrogen fastened by the legumes.
  • By having many crops rising
    concurrently on the sector the farmers is kind of buffered
    in opposition to failure of one of many crop.
  • Inter-cropping permits for a extra
    uniform distribution of labour all year long.
  • When one part of an inter-crop
    mixture fails, the opposite combos are in a position to utilized the
    assets that will have been accessible to the failed crop, and so
    yield higher than they might have carried out in any other case. In different phrases
    there’s yield stability.
  • The unfold of illnesses and pests is
    much less speedy than in sole cropping. That is most likely as a result of the imply
    distances between the crops of the identical part crops are
    higher. In lots of cases, the opposite part crops usually are not
    inclined to the actual illness or pest afflicting one
    part and might act as bodily limitations to the unfold of illnesses
    and pest

Associated: The Idea of Animal Vitality Stability within the Bodily Setting

Disadvantages of inter-cropping

  • Since many crops exist collectively on
    the sector, it’s not doable to tailor manufacturing practices to the
    wants of any explicit crop.
  • Management of pests and illnesses is
    significantly troublesome as a result of pesticides which have been
    improvement to manage a illness on one explicit part crop
    might have deleterious impact on different crops within the mixture.
  • It’s troublesome to mechanize
    operations such as planting, weeding and harvesting.

Learn Additionally: Sowing Information for Totally different Type of Crops

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