The apply of rising one crop selection in pure stands on a area is referred to as sole cropping. On this apply, just one crop selection occupies the land at a time.
In the meantime, The choice apply of rising two or extra crops concurrently on the identical area is known as inter-cropping. The varied crops within the inter-crop don’t essentially need to be sown or harvested on the similar time, the principle requirement is that they’re on the sector on the similar time for a important a part of their rising durations.
- Row inter-cropping: that is when the
varied crops are grown in separate rows
- Combined cropping: that is when the
varied crops are grown intermingled roughly at random with
- Relay inter-cropping: that is when a
second crop selection is sown between the stands of an current sole
crop simply earlier than the primary crop is harvested. As such, each the
first and second crops spend most of their area as sole crop, and
develop collectively on the sector for under a transient interval.
Learn Additionally: The Definitions and Classifications of Cropping System
Elements that decide the crops mixture and spatial association
- Tillage practices: when ridges have
been made, the , the spatial association of the assorted crops could also be
decided by explicit wants of every crop. For instance, yam which
requires a deep layer of tilled soil, is planted on the prime of the
mounds, whereas rice due to its excessive moisture requirement, is
planted within the decrease floor between the mounds. Different crops such as
maize, pumpkins and melons are planted at intermediate positions
between the rice and the yams.
- The crop the farmers considers as
goal crop and which one is taken into account a subsidiary affect the
proportion of the crops.
- Nature of the crops themselves: a few
strands of pumpkin or melon occupy a lit of land and have excessive
financial yield, whereas rice strands, foe instance, must be
far more quite a few to be significant.
Associated: Tendencies in Crop Manufacturing Nationally and Globally
Evaluating yield from inter-cropping
The relative yield of every part crop in an inter-cropping state of affairs is the yield of that part within the inter-cropping state of affairs divided by what that crop would have yielded as a sole crop, masking the identical space as the inter-crop and managed on the similar stage.
Suppose, for instance, that a area with a crop mixture of maize and cow-peas yields 1.5 tonnes/hectare of maize and 0.25 tonnes/ha. Of cow-peas. If the anticipated sole crop yield of maize is 2.0 t/ha and that of cow-peas is 0.5 t/ha. Then the relative yield of maize is 1.5/2.0 =0.75 and the relative yield of cow-peas is 0.25/0.50=0.50.
The sum of the relative yields of the assorted part crops within the inter-crops within the inter-crop is typically referred to as the relative yield whole. Just a little reflection of what number of instances the land space used for inter-crop could be required to produced the identical yields of the part crops when they’re grown as sole crops. The relative yield whole is subsequently extra conventionally referred to as land equal ratio (LER).
LER = relative yield of crop A and
relative yield of crop B + relative yield of crop n
Within the maize/cow-peas mixture thought-about above the LER = 0.75 + 0.25 = 1.25. An LER higher than 1.0 implies that for that individual crop mixture, inter-cropping yielding greater than rising the identical variety of stands every crop as sole crops. An LER of lower than 1.0 implies that the inter-cropping was much less helpful than cropping.
LER will also be calculated based mostly on the financial worth of the yield obtained from the assorted inter-crop and sole crop state of affairs and make comparisons on the premise.
Calculating LER by evaluating the whole power worth of the yield in kilo energy in varied conditions and in contrast the values to find out which association was most helpful.
Learn Additionally: Benefits of Steady Cropping as a Sort of Cropping System
- In a fastidiously deliberate inter-cropping
the LER is normally higher than one. Which means there’s yield
benefit in rising crops collectively than rising every one
individually. This benefit might rise from a number of sources.
- The crops might complement each other
of their use of area time. The interval of their peak calls for for
mild, water, vitamins and different assets might differ, in order that in
common there’s a extra environment friendly utilization of the assets
accessible. For instance, throughout the two or three month that yam takes
to sprout and set up adequately on the sector, a fast inter-crop
of maize or melon would beneficially make the most of the sector assets
throughout this era.
- The part crop might complement
one another of their use of house. For instance, an inter-crop of a
deep rooted crop can exploit varied horizons of the soil.
- An inter-crops might be able to
utilized assets which the principle crop might not have the ability to utilized
or which can even be disadvantageous to it.
- Sure crops might exert particular
helpful impact on others. For instance, plantains inter-cropped
with younger cocoa seedlings present shade for the seedlings.
Equally, in an inter-crop of a legume with a cereal crop, the
cereal would profit from the nitrogen fastened by the legumes.
- By having many crops rising
concurrently on the sector the farmers is kind of buffered
in opposition to failure of one of many crop.
- Inter-cropping permits for a extra
uniform distribution of labour all year long.
- When one part of an inter-crop
mixture fails, the opposite combos are in a position to utilized the
assets that will have been accessible to the failed crop, and so
yield higher than they might have carried out in any other case. In different phrases
there’s yield stability.
- The unfold of illnesses and pests is
much less speedy than in sole cropping. That is most likely as a result of the imply
distances between the crops of the identical part crops are
higher. In lots of cases, the opposite part crops usually are not
inclined to the actual illness or pest afflicting one
part and might act as bodily limitations to the unfold of illnesses
Associated: The Idea of Animal Vitality Stability within the Bodily Setting
Disadvantages of inter-cropping
- Since many crops exist collectively on
the sector, it’s not doable to tailor manufacturing practices to the
wants of any explicit crop.
- Management of pests and illnesses is
significantly troublesome as a result of pesticides which have been
improvement to manage a illness on one explicit part crop
might have deleterious impact on different crops within the mixture.
- It’s troublesome to mechanize
operations such as planting, weeding and harvesting.
Learn Additionally: Sowing Information for Totally different Type of Crops