Home Farm Equipment Keep an eye out for soybean gall midge

Keep an eye out for soybean gall midge

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College of Minnesota Extension entomologists and crop specialists ask that farmers proceed to scout soybean fields for soybean gall midge.

The small orange-red-colored maggots, discovered below the soybean dermis close to the bottom of the plant, have been discovered on soybean vegetation in 140 counties in Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri. Twenty-six counties have been added this 12 months, with three reporting larvae solely on candy clover.

Stories of soybean gall midge findings are up to date on the regional Soybean Gall Midge Alert Network, managed by the College of Nebraska Extension.

Minnesota noticed the best soybean gall midge unfold this 12 months among the many 5 states, with the pest present in 13 counties for the primary time. That mentioned, crop damage this season within the state from soybean gall midge has been lower than earlier years, in accordance with Bruce Potter, built-in pest administration specialist with the College of Minnesota Extension.

“As the second larval generation developed during late July and August 2021, infestations became easier to locate,” Potter says. “These new county infestations were not at high soybean gall midge population densities.”

Courtesy of Soybean Gall Midge Alert Community

MIDGE’S SPREAD: Soybean gall midge has been documented in 140 counties throughout 5 states as of Aug. 31. Twenty-six counties have been added to the record this 12 months.

It’s not recognized how the drought could have impacted the unfold of soybean gall midge within the state.

“The effect is not clear, but it may have reduced colonization success at mating, egg laying or larval survival,” Potter says.

Most of these new midge detections didn’t present signs of useless or wilted vegetation to offer clues, he provides.

“We needed to look for symptoms at the base of stems beneath normal appearing canopies,” Potter says. “In some cases, brittle stems resulting from soybean gall midge injury made finding the larvae easier; but even then, only a few infested plants were found in these fields.”

In a latest e-newsletter, Potter credited a sharp-eyed farmer in Traverse County with discovering soybean gall midge in mid-August by inspecting a single plant with a damaged stem in considered one of his fields.

Soybean gall midge has additionally been noticed in Minnesota on the alternate host candy clover. Potter says the pest might be discovered there — and to lesser extent, on alfalfa.

“Minnesota is conducting some field studies and a survey to look at dry beans and other cultivated legumes as alternate hosts,” Potter provides. In a free-choice surroundings, the midge prefers soybeans because the host.

Researchers have been nonetheless capturing rising soybean gall midge adults in mid-August, so Potter expects soybean dying and stem breakage to proceed for a couple of weeks. He asks that growers contact him or U-M Extension entomologist Rob Koch, particularly in the event that they discover the midge in a Minnesota county the place it has not but been confirmed.

“From a distance, soybean plants killed by the soybean gall midge can resemble those killed by white mold, but are generally located at the field edge,” Potter says. “As harvest approaches, if you notice areas of dead or lodged soybeans with brittle lower stems on the edge of your fields, it could very well be caused by soybean gall midge.”

Administration, analysis

Right now, there are not any administration methods really helpful for soybean gall midge. Screening for resistant varieties is being performed in Nebraska, Iowa and South Dakota, Potter says. Insecticide and cultural work is also being performed in Nebraska and Iowa.

“Because we have not yet been able to maintain a laboratory colony, it has been hard to work on some of the basic biology issues, such as temperature-dependent development and identifying mating and aggregation pheromones,” Potter says. Analysis is being performed in Koch’s lab to establish organic management for the soybean gall midge, he provides.

What scientists know

Based on U-M Extension info, entomologists are within the early phases of understanding soybean gall midge biology. The larvae are believed to overwinter inside cocoons within the soil of infested fields, with pupation and grownup emergence occurring within the spring. Adults start to emerge in June. Emergence of adults is extended and may lengthen into July.

Though reproductive behaviors usually are not but recognized, egg laying is suspected to happen close to the bottom of vegetation, the place larval infestations are usually discovered. Cracks within the stem dermis and different wounds could present websites for egg deposition or larval entry. There are a minimum of two grownup generations every year in Minnesota.

Pure enemies of the soybean gall midge could happen however haven’t been documented.

Plant signs and larval infestations are seen after the V2 soybean development phases. Larvae happen below the dermis of the soybean stem, usually on the base of the vegetation. Larval feeding causes blackened areas on the base of the stem, with closely infested areas of stems deformed and necrotic. Stems can lodge or break simply at these areas. Damage may end up in stunting, wilting and dying of soybean vegetation. Important yield reductions have been recorded, particularly on area edges.

Seed-applied pesticides don’t seem like efficient. Utility of foliar pesticides could possibly be an possibility sooner or later, however insecticide efficacy and software timing must be studied. Prolonged emergence and a number of generations might make insecticide management of adults troublesome.

If host plant resistance might be recognized, varieties immune to soybean gall midge could possibly be a beneficial administration software.

To report a discovering of soybean gall midge, contact Potter at [email protected], or Koch at [email protected].

Infestations might be confirmed with a photograph and area location. Up to date distribution maps, gall midge grownup emergence and different info is on the market at soybeangallmidge.org.

Be taught extra concerning the pest online.

Checkoff {dollars} via the North Central Soybean Analysis Program and Minnesota Soybean Analysis and Promotion Council assist assist soybean gall midge surveys.

 

 

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