The Virginia-type peanut variety Bailey grew to become a rock star when it was launched by North Carolina State College’s breeding program in 2008 as a result of it supplied each nice yield potential and glorious illness resistance. Quickly, it grew to become the No. 1 variety grown throughout Virginia and the Carolinas.
In 2017, Tom Isleib’s breeding program at North Carolina State launched Bailey II, a high-oleic model of Bailey with a slight yield benefit over Bailey in addition to glorious illness resistance. In the present day, Bailey II is the most well-liked Virginia-type cultivar grown by farmers within the Carolinas and Virginia.
Each Bailey and Bailey II are extremely resistant to early-season leaf spot. The problem at present is that late leaf spot has turn into extra prevalent over the previous 5 years and whereas Bailey and Bailey II are resistant to early leaf spot, they’re inclined to late leaf spot.
With this problem in thoughts, Jeff Dunne, who took over peanut breeding duties at North Carolina State, upon Tom Isleib’s retirement in 2018, is working on a brand new model of Bailey II that may supply resistance to late season leaf spot.
Talking on the Southeastern North Carolina Peanut Area Day Sept. 14 on the Border Belt Tobacco Analysis Station in Whiteville, Dunne stated Bailey and Bailey II have been probably extremely resistant to early leaf spot, however not late leaf spot. As a result of early leaf spot was extra prevalent throughout the improvement of Bailey, it wasn’t recognized it was inclined to late leaf spot.
Dunne defined that within the improvement of Bailey, Islelib labored with fellow peanut scientist Tom Stalker at North Carolina State who is thought worldwide for his work in utilizing genetic materials from wild peanuts to diversify and enhance cultivated species. Isleib and Stalker labored collectively to establish resistance to leaf spot and Bailey was developed with materials from wild species strains.
“We circled back to the original material used in our crossing program. We realized there was one very important gene that didn’t make its way into Bailey. We’ve identified this material in collaboration with a group at the University of Georgia that also works on wild species. This summer is the first time we’ve started making crosses with this material to work that gene into the background of Bailey II,” Dunne stated.
This materials is being crossed into the background of Bailey II to supply each early leaf spot resistance in addition to late leaf spot resistance. Like Bailey and Bailey II, Dunne stated this third model of Bailey shall be resistant to tomato noticed wilt virus and shall be excessive oleic and supply glorious yield potential.
“Foundation and certified seed will be available in three years once the line is developed. We just started crossing and there will be several years of testing before anything gets released. Chances are this will take about eight years total before we send any released seed to North Carolina foundation seed producers,” Dunne defined.
Additionally, on the subject day, Dunne highlighted NC 20, a brand new line his program is working on that’s just like Bailey II, however affords a barely bigger seed compared to Bailey II. Like Bailey II, it’s a excessive oleic, affords glorious illness resistance and powerful yield potential. “NC 20 is able to hold onto it pods even under heavy disease pressure,” Dunne stated.
One distinction between NC 20 and Bailey II is that NC 20 is a later maturing line. It matures seven to 14 days after Bailey and Bailey II. Dunne says it will permit farmers to stagger their harvest dates.
“You can leave NC 20 in the field a little bit longer. As you leave it in the field to mature, you’re still getting that yield, but you are also recovering a better grade,” Dunne stated.
“The later you dig NC 20 the better. It also holds its yield under late leaf spot if you are worried about late season leaf spot pressure,” Dunne stated.
Dunne stated basis seed of NC 20 must be out there in 2024.
Later maturing varieties
Within the meantime, North Carolina State College Extension Peanut Specialist David Jordan says farmers would welcome a later maturing variety so they might higher stagger their harvest dates. He says he at all times explains to new peanut growers that they’ll plant much more acreage than they’ll choose in a well timed method.
“In terms of maturity, we would like to have some varieties with a little spread. We definitely don’t have that with Bailey II, Emery or Sullivan. If you plant these varieties on the same day, they are going to mature at about the same time,” Jordan stated.
“In North Carolina, if you plant in early-May versus late-May, generally speaking, that’s going to be a seven to 10-day difference at the most in terms of maturity. We really get squeezed from a harvest standpoint, because our varieties don’t spread it out for us very much and our planting dates don’t spread out that maturity very much either,” he stated.
“When they get ready, pretty much everything is ready. There is a limited amount of time before things start to shed off. This sometimes forces us to dig peanuts a week early. There is a 5% to 7% loss in yield if we dig a week early,” Jordan defined.
“It’s critical that farmers get their digging and harvesting capacity in line with acreage. And sometimes the bottleneck revolves around turning around trailers. It gets complicated and stressful for a period of time in the fall when it all comes together.”