Home Crop Monitoring Poultry Housing Management: Poultry Pen/House Construction Guide

Poultry Housing Management: Poultry Pen/House Construction Guide

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Several types of poultry homes

  • Brooder / chick house-It’s used to brood and rear egg-type chicks from 0 to eight weeks of age.
  • Grower house-It’s used to develop egg-type birds from 9 to 18 weeks of age.
  • Brooders cum grower house-Right here, the birds are reared from 0 to 18 weeks of age (whole brooding and rising interval of egg-type rooster).
  • Layer house-By which birds over 18 weeks of age are reared, often as much as 72 weeks of age.
  • Broiler house-By which broilers are reared as much as 6 weeks of age.
  • Breeder house-By which each female and male breeders are maintained at applicable intercourse ratio.
  • Environmentally managed (EC) house-By which, whole surroundings is manipulated in such a method that’s optimum for the birds development.

Optimum environmental circumstances for rearing broilers

Temperature    – 22-300C (70-850F)
Relative Humidity    – 30-60 %
Ammonia degree    – Lower than 25 ppm
Litter moisture    – 15-25%
Air circulate   – 10-30 metres/minute

Home Orientation (Course)

The poultry home needs to be positioned in such a method that lengthy axis is in east-west course.  It will forestall the direct sunshine over the birds.

Measurement

Every broiler require one sq. foot of flooring area whereas a layer requires two sq. ft of flooring area underneath deep-litter system of rearing.  So the scale of the home depends upon the variety of birds to be reared.

Size

The size of the home could be of any extent.  The variety of birds reared and availability of the land determines the size of poultry home.

Width

The open sided poultry homes in tropical nations ought to have a width no more than 22 to 25 ft as a way to enable ample air flow and aeration on the mid-portion.  Sheds wider than this won’t present satisfactory air flow throughout the sizzling climate.

If the width of the shed is greater than 25 ft, ridge air flow on the center line of the roof prime with correct overhang is a should.  Scorching air and obnoxious gases that are lighter than air transfer upward and escape by ridge air flow.

In environmentally managed poultry homes, the width of the home could also be even 40 ft or extra for the reason that air flow is managed with the assistance of exhaust followers.

Top

The peak of the perimeters from basis to the roof line needs to be 6 to 7 ft (eaves top) and on the centre 10 to 12 ft.  In case of cage homes, the peak is set by the kind of cage preparations (3 tier or 4 tier).

Basis

Good basis is important to stop seepage of water into the poultry sheds.  The muse of the home ought to of concrete with 1 to 1.5 ft under the floor and 1 to 1.5 ft above the bottom degree.

Ground

The ground needs to be made from concrete with rat proof system and free from dampness.  The ground of the home needs to be prolonged 1.5 ft exterior the wall on all sides to stop rat and snake issues.

Doorways

The door should be open exterior in case of deep-litter poultry homes. The dimensions of door is ideally 6 x 2.5 ft.  On the entry, a foot tub needs to be constructed to fill with a disinfectant.

Facet partitions

The aspect wall needs to be of 1-1.5 ft top, and customarily on the degree of hen’s again top.  This aspect wall protects the hen throughout wet days or chill local weather and likewise offers ample air flow.  In case of cage homes, no aspect wall is required.

 Roof

The roof of the poultry home could also be thatched, tiled, asbestos or concrete one relying upon the price involvement. Several types of roofs are Shed, Gable, half-monitor, full-monitor (Monitor), Flat concrete, Gambrel, Gothic and so forth.  Gable sort is usually most well-liked in tropical nations like India.

Overhang

The overhang of the roof shouldn’t be lower than 3.5 ft as a way to forestall the entry of rain water into the shed.

Lighting

Gentle needs to be supplied at 7-8 ft above the bottom degree and should be hanged from ceiling.  If incandescent bulbs are used, the interval between two bulbs is 10 ft.  In case of fluorescent lights (tube lights) the interval is 15 ft.

Learn Additionally: Finest Sort of Poultry to Increase for Business Manufacturing and their Time of Maturity

Techniques of Poultry Housing

Poultry could be housed underneath totally different programs primarily based on following components,

  1. Availability of land
  2. Value of land
  3. Sort of farming exercise
  4. Climatic situation
  5. Labour availability

Broadly, poultry housing programs are labeled into three programs:

    1. Free vary or in depth system
    2. Semi-intensive system
    3. Intensive system:
      1. Deep-litter system
      2. Slatted flooring system
      3. Slat cum litter system
      4. Cage system

1) Free vary system

This method is adopted solely when satisfactory land is obtainable to make sure desired stocking density by avoiding overcrowding. We are able to rear about 250 grownup birds per hectare.

A variety offers shelter, greens, feed, water and shade.  Foraging is the most important supply of feeding for birds.  Shelter is often supplied by momentary roofing supported by atypical poles.

The fields are usually used on rotational foundation after harvesting of crops by shifting of birds from one subject to a different relying on cropping programme. All classes of birds could be reared on this system.  This method is most most well-liked for natural egg manufacturing.

Benefits

  • Much less capital funding
  • Value of housing is least.
  • Feed necessities are much less since birds can devour pretty good quantity of feed from grass land.
  • Fertility of soil could be maintained.

Disadvantages

  • The scientific administration practices can’t be adopted.
  • Eggs are misplaced when laid contained in the dense grasses until particular nests are supplied.
  • Losses on account of predatory animals are extra.
  • Wild birds might deliver ailments until correct care is taken.

2) Semi-intensive system

Because the identify signifies birds are half-way reared in homes and half-way on floor or vary, i.e. birds are confined to homes in evening or as per want and they’re additionally given entry to runs.  The homes are with strong flooring whereas runs are fields solely.

The success of rearing depends upon upkeep of situation of runs to scale back the contamination.  Runs may also be used on flip foundation.  The stocking density fee on a mean for grownup birds is 750 per hectare.

This method is often adopted for duck rearing.  The feeding and watering services are supplied within the pen.

Benefits

  • Extra economical use of land in comparison with free vary system
  • Safety of birds from excessive weather conditions
  • Management over scientific operation is a few extent doable

Disadvantages

  • Excessive value for fencing.
  • Want for routine cleansing and removing of litter materials from the pen.

3) Intensive system

Birds are completely confined to homes both on floor / flooring or on wire-netting flooring in cages or on slats.  It’s the best, handy and economical system for contemporary poultry manufacturing with enormous numbers.

Benefits

  • Minimal land is required for farming.
  • Farms could be positioned close to market space.
  • Day-to-day administration is less complicated.
  • The manufacturing efficiency is larger as extra power is saved on account of restricted actions.
  • Scientific administration practices like breeding, feeding, remedy, culling and so forth. could be utilized simply and precisely.
  • The sick birds could be detected, remoted and handled simply.

Disadvantages

  • Birds’ welfare is affected.  They can not carry out the pure behaviour like roosting, spreading wings, scratching the ground with legs and so forth.
  • Since they don’t seem to be uncovered to exterior daylight and feed sources, all of the vitamins needs to be supplied in balanced method to keep away from nutritionally poor ailments.
  • Probabilities for spreading of ailments are extra.

Deep Litter System

On this system the birds are stored inside the home on a regular basis.  Association for feed, water and nest are made inside the home.  The birds are stored on appropriate litter materials of about 3” to five” depth.  The phrase litter is used for contemporary litter materials unfold on the ground.

Normally paddy husk, noticed mud, floor nut hulls, chopped paddy straw or wooden shavings are used as litter supplies.  This association saves labour concerned in frequent cleansing of faecal matter (droppings), nonetheless it wants periodical stirring.  The litter is unfold on the ground in layers of two” top each fortnightly until the required is achieved.

Learn Additionally: Finest Sort of Poultry to Increase for Business Manufacturing and their Time of Maturity

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poultry

Benefits

  • Vit B2 and Vit B12 are made out there to birds from the litter materials by the bacterial motion.
  • The welfare of birds is maintained to some lengthen
  • The deep litter manure is a helpful fertilizer.
  • Lesser nuisance from flies when in comparison with cage system.

Disadvantages

  • Due to the direct contact between hen and litter, bacterial and parasitic illness could also be an issue.
  • Respiratory issues might emerge on account of mud from the litter.
  • The price of litter is a further expenditure on manufacturing value.
  • Faults in air flow can have extra severe penalties than within the cage system

The constructed up litter

Deep litter or constructed up litter is accumulation and decomposition of litter materials and excreta till it reaches a depth of 8” to 12”, after an unique begin of three” to five” depth.  Bacterial motion decomposes litter and excreta into crumble type and warmth is produced throughout decomposition which retains litter dry and heat.

If the quantity of droppings exceeds the litter, contemporary litter will probably be added to decrease the quantity of droppings.  Periodical stirring of the litter needs to be carried out for an efficient functioning of built-up litter.

After one 12 months, the litter is modified and the decomposed litter is used pretty much as good high quality manure.  One of the best built-up litter needs to be dry, friable and free from obnoxious odour.

Slatted (Slotted) Ground System

In a slatted flooring, iron rods or wooden reapers are used as flooring, often 2-3 ft above the bottom degree to facilitate fall of droppings by slats.  Wood reapers or iron rods of two” diameter can be utilized on lengthwise of the home with interspaces of 1” between rods.

Benefits

  • Much less flooring area per hen is required when in comparison with strong flooring system.
  • Bedding is eradicated
  • Manure dealing with is averted
  • Elevated sanitation
  • Saving in labour
  • Soil borne an infection is managed

Disadvantages

  • Increased preliminary value than typical strong flooring
  • Much less flexibility in using the constructing
  • Any spilled feed is misplaced by the slots
  • Extra fly drawback.

Slat (Slot) Cum Litter System

This method is usually practiced for rearing birds for hatching eggs manufacturing, significantly meat-type breeders.  Right here, part of the ground space is roofed with slats.

Normally, 60% of the ground space is roofed with slats and relaxation with litter. Feeders and waterers are organized in each slat and litter space.  In case of breeder flock, nest containers are often stored on litter space.

Benefits

  • Extra eggs could be produced per unit of flooring area than all strong flooring.
  • Fertility is healthier with the slat cum litter home than with the all-slat home.

Disadvantages

  • Housing funding is larger with the slat cum litter home than with the all-litter home.
  • The separation of birds from the manure beneath the slats generally leads to fly issues.

    Cage System

This method includes rearing of poultry on raised wire netting flooring in smaller compartments, known as cages, both fitted with stands on flooring of home or hanged from the roof.  It has been proved very environment friendly for laying operations, proper from day-old to until disposal.

At current, 75% of business layers on the earth are stored in cages. Feeders and waterers are hooked up to cages from exterior besides nipple waterers, for which pipeline is put in by or above cages.

Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg assortment belts may also be used on this rearing system.  The droppings are both collected in trays beneath cages or on belts or on the ground or deep pit underneath cages, relying on sort of cages.

Poultry Housing Management: Poultry Pen/House Construction Guide Poultry Housing Management: Poultry Pen/House Construction Guide

Benefits

  • Minimal flooring area is required
  • Extra variety of eggs per hen could be obtained
  • Much less feed wastage
  • Higher feed effectivity
  • Safety from inner parasites and soil borne diseases
  • Sick and unproductive birds could be simply recognized and eradicated.
  • Clear eggs manufacturing
  • Vices like egg consuming, pecking is minimal.
  • Broodiness is minimal
  • No want of litter materials
  • Synthetic Insemination (AI) could be adopted.

Disadvantages

  • Excessive preliminary funding value.
  • Dealing with of manure could also be drawback. Usually, flies change into a higher nuisance.
  • The incidence of blood spots in egg is extra
  • Downside of cage layer fatigue. (It’s a situation, by which laying birds in cages develop lameness.  It could be on account of Ca and P deficiency however the precise purpose is just not recognized)
  • In case of broilers, incidence of breast blisters is extra, particularly when the broilers weight is greater than 1.5 kg.

Varieties of cages

Based mostly on the variety of birds in a cage, it’s labeled as

  • Single or particular person hen cage (Just one hen in a cage)
  • A number of hen cage (From 2 to 10 birds, often 3 or 4 birds per cage)
  • Colony cages (Holding birds greater than 11 per cage)

Based mostly on the variety of rows

  • Single-deck
  • Double-deck
  • Triple-deck
  • 4-deck
  • Flat-deck

poultry farmer

Based mostly on association of cages

Learn Additionally: IMPORTANCE OF RECORDS MAINTENANCE IN THE POULTRY FARM

1) Stair-step cages

poultry farmer


a) M-type cages
b) L-type cages

2) Battery cages (Vertical cages)

                         poultry farmer

Based mostly on the kind of hen reared

  1. Brooder / chick cages
  2. Grower cages
  3. Layer cages
  4. Breeder cages

Broiler cages

1) Brooder cage / chick cage

brooder cage

Brooder cage

Specs:    Entrance feeding size     : 60 inch
Entrance & Again top     : 12 inch
Depth                        : 36 inch
No. of chicks (0-8 weeks) accommodated per field   :   60

Chick cages are organized both as single deck or double deck system.  The feeders and waterers are organized on exterior.

Now-a-days nipple drinker system is adopted from day-old itself. Newspaper could also be unfold over the cage flooring for first 7 or 10 days. Feed is often supplied contained in the cage throughout the first week of age.

2) Grower cage

Specs:    Entrance feeding size     : 30 inch
Entrance & Again top     : 15 inch
Depth                        : 18 inch
No. of growers (9 to 18 weeks) accommodated per field   : 10

3) Layer cage

Two sorts of stair-step layer cages are generally utilized in open-sided poultry homes

  1. Standard cages
  2. Reverse cages (Californian cages)

a) Standard cages
Poultry Housing Management: Poultry Pen/House Construction Guide
Specs for every field:

Entrance feeding size     : 15 inch
Entrance top                : 18 inch
Again top                : 15 inch
Depth                        : 18 inch

b) Reverse cages

Specs for every field: Entrance feeding size     : 18 inch
Entrance top                : 18 inch
Again top                : 15 inch
Depth                        : 15 inch

These cages can maintain 3 to 4 birds.  They’re organized both in 2-tier or 3-tier.  A slope of 1/6 is supplied in typical cages, the place as in reverse cages the slope is 1/5.

Benefits of reverse cages over typical cages

  1. Extra feeding area is obtainable in reverse cages.  So, all 4 birds can take feed at a time, the place as in typical cages, 3 birds can take feed and the opposite one is ready on the again.
  2. Variety of cracked eggs is much less on account of lesser rolling distance.
  3. Higher air flow in reverse cages than typical cages.

Elevated cage layer home

The peak of the shed is raised by 6-7 ft utilizing concrete pillars.  The gap between two pillars is 10 ft.  Two ft vast concrete platforms are remodeled the pillars.  When 3 ‘M’ sort cages are organized 4 platforms are wanted.  In case of two ‘M’ and a pair of ‘L’ sort cages are organized 3 platforms are wanted.

When developing platforms projecting angles or iron rods to be supplied to repair the cages.  The inter-platform distance is 6-7 ft relying upon the kind of the cages used.  The overall top of the home is 20-25 ft and the width is 30-33 ft.  Any such homes offers ample air flow in tropical nations.

Learn Additionally: Causes of Vent Pecking, Prolapsed Vent and Cannibalism amongst Poultry Birds

Poultry Housing Management: Poultry Pen/House Construction Guide

Poultry Housing Management: Poultry Pen/House Construction Guide

Ground area necessities

Sort Age
(in weeks)
Deep-litter
(ft2)
Cages
(ft2)
Egg-type rooster 0-8 0.60 0.20
9-18 1.25 0.30
>18 1.50 0.50
Meat-type rooster 0-4 0.30
4-8 0.75

Reference: http://www.agritech.tnau.ac.in/expert_system/poultry/Poultry%20Housepercent20Construction.html

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