As earlier acknowledged that time of lay birds will be referred to as day outdated pullets which have been raised from Day1 until between 12 and 18weeks of age.
Due to this fact shopping for level of lay birds at about 12 weeks outdated might be higher as a result of at that age, they’re cheaper and it offers you the chance of boosting them up earlier than they begin laying.
Nonetheless, in case your supply is sweet, shopping for the purpose of lay birds at any of the ages won’t provide you with any downside offered they’re nicely managed.
Now allow us to focus on in regards to the components that impacts egg manufacturing and higher methods to deal with the issues as to allow most egg manufacturing out of your laying birds.
Components affecting Egg Manufacturing
Usually, a layer’s manufacturing cycle lasts simply over a 12 months (52-56 weeks). In the course of the manufacturing cycle many components affect egg manufacturing; due to this fact, the cycle have to be managed successfully and effectively so as to present most output and profitability. The following components affect egg manufacturing.
Breed: The breed of the laying chicken influences egg manufacturing. Administration and feeding practices, nevertheless, are the important thing figuring out options for egg manufacturing.
Mortality price: Mortality price could rise due to illness, predation or excessive temperature. The mortality price of small chicks (up to eight weeks of age) is about 4 p.c; that of growers (between eight and 20 weeks of age) is about 15 p.c; and that of layers (between 20 and 72 weeks of age) is about 12 p.c. The common mortality price of a flock is from 20 to 25 p.c per 12 months.
Varieties of Point of Lay Laying Homes
Housing for warm – arid climates
Open home kind
Moveable kind housing
Sources: Kekeocha, 1985; Oluyemi and Roberts, 1979
Age: Birds sometimes start producing eggs of their twentieth or twenty-first week and proceed for barely over a 12 months. That is one of the best laying interval and eggs have a tendency to enhance in measurement till the tip of the egg manufacturing cycle.
Learn Additionally: Layers Administration: Pullets (Day Outdated Chicks) Vs Point of Lay (Layers) which is Higher?
Physique weight: Typically, optimum physique weight in the course of the laying interval ought to be round 1.5 kg, though this varies in accordance to breed. Underweight in addition to obese birds lay eggs at a decrease price. Correct administration and the right amount of feed are crucial so as to obtain optimum physique weight.
Laying home: The laying home ought to be constructed in accordance to native weather conditions and the farmer’s funds. A superb home protects laying birds from theft, predation, direct daylight, rain, extreme wind, warmth and chilly, in addition to sudden adjustments in temperature and extreme mud.
If the local weather is scorching and humid, for instance, the use of an open home development will allow air flow. The inside of the home ought to be organized in order that it requires minimal labour and time to look after the birds.
Lighting schedule: Egg manufacturing is stimulated by daylight; due to this fact, as the times develop longer manufacturing will increase. In open homes, discovered generally within the tropics, synthetic lighting could also be used to enhance the laying interval. When darkness falls synthetic lighting will be launched for 2 to three hours, which can enhance egg manufacturing by 20 to 30 p.c.
In closed homes, the place layers usually are not uncovered to pure mild, the size of the unreal day ought to be elevated both in a single step, or in a quantity of steps till the unreal day reaches 16 to 17 hours, which can guarantee fixed and maximized egg manufacturing. Efficient day size ought to by no means lower in the course of the laying interval. An excellent synthetic mild schedule is proven in Determine 1.
Feed: Free-range hens will produce extra meat and eggs with supplemental feed, however provided that they’re improved breeds or crossbreeds. The choice of native hens is completed on the idea of resistance and different standards fairly than feed utilisation for manufacturing.
Recent and clear water ought to at all times be offered, as a layer can devour up to one-quarter of a litre a day.
Determine 1 – Lighting schedule
Supply: Smith, 1990
Culling: Culling is the removing of undesirable (sick and/or unproductive) birds, from the flock. There are two strategies of culling:
- mass culling, when the complete flock is eliminated and changed on the finish of the laying cycle; and
- selective culling, when the farmer removes particular person unproductive or sick birds.
Culling allows a excessive stage of egg manufacturing to be maintained, prevents feed waste on unproductive birds and should avert the spreading of illnesses.
Local weather: The optimum laying temperature is between 11° and 26° C. A humidity stage above 75 p.c will trigger a discount in egg laying. Determine 2 signifies the impact temperature has on egg manufacturing.
Temperature and its results on egg manufacturing
11 – 26
26 – 28
|Some discount in feed consumption.|
28 – 32
|Feed consumption decreased and water consumption elevated; eggs of decreased measurement and skinny shell.|
32 – 35
25 – 40
|Warmth prostration units in, measures to cool the home have to be taken.|
40 and above
|Mortality due to warmth stress.|
Supply: Kekeocha, 1985
When the temperature rises above 28° C the manufacturing and high quality of eggs lower. Seasonal temperature will increase can scale back egg manufacturing by about 10 p.c.
Learn Additionally: How to Improve Egg Manufacturing in Industrial Layers
Administration components: Efficient and environment friendly administration methods are crucial to enhance the productiveness of the birds and consequently enhance revenue. This entails not solely correct housing and feeding, but additionally cautious rearing and good therapy of the birds.
Vaccination and illness management: Ailments and parasites could cause losses in egg manufacturing.
Some of the illnesses are as follows:
- bacterial: tuberculosis, fowl typhoid
- viral: Newcastle, fowl plague
- fungal: aspergillosis
- protozoan: coccidiosis
- dietary: rickets, perosis
Some of the parasites are:
- exterior: lice, mites
- inside: roundworms, tapeworms
Vaccinations are administered to birds by injection, water consumption, eye drops and spraying. Clear and hygienic dwelling quarters and environment could eradicate up to 90 p.c of all illness occurrences.
Assortment of eggs: Frequent egg assortment will forestall hens from brooding eggs or attempting to eat them and also will forestall the eggs from changing into broken or soiled.
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