The most typical varieties of fish housing are: Earthen pond, Concrete tank and Re-circulatory system. Nonetheless, relying on the place you’re utilizing for your farm and the amount you wish to increase, it’s potential to make use of some non permanent type of housing for your fish.
For example, plastic tanks with open finish can be utilized, additionally it is potential to assemble fish pond with very sturdy tarpaulin and wooden popularly often called Movable ponds”. To get an in depth description of how plastics tanks and tarpaulin can be utilized for fish housing, the creator of this publish may be contacted.
Types of Ponds for Tradition
A number of sorts of ponds are required for fish tradition, relying upon the perform carried out by every.
1. Hatching Pits:
These are small tanks which might be used for hatching of fertilized eggs, and are supplied with steady sluggish flowing water for aeration. Every tank is normally of 2.5 m x 1.25 m x 0.6 m dimension.
Nonetheless, small material tanks referred to as ‘hapas’ made of coarse material or mosquito curtain material (2.0 x 1.0 x 0.50 m) can be used for hatching and is mounted in a bigger tank.
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2. Spawning Pond:
It is a small pond during which brood fish are positioned for spawning. Brood fish might also be positioned in hapas for spawning.
3. Nursery Pond:
These are bigger ponds for newly hatched fry. Often it’s 15 x 15 x 1.2 m and is seasonal which dries up throughout summer time.
4. Rearing Pond:
These are bigger ponds, normally of 30 x 10 x 1.25 m, and are used for rearing superior fry until they develop into fingerlings. They might be seasonal or perennial and have a mild slope to facilitate netting of fingerlings.
5. Rising Pond or Stocking Pond:
It is a giant perennial pond, greater than 2 m deep and is used for the expansion of fish to marketable dimension. The dimension of the pond relies upon upon the fish species to be cultured.
Along with the above, 2-3 advertising and marketing ponds are additionally constructed in a fish farm. These are used for stocking fish prepared for the market. These ponds are organized in two or extra parallel rows, with 1.25 m house separating them.
Building of a Fish Pond
Three sorts of ponds are constructed for fish tradition.
(i) Ravine pond made by claiming a dry ravine or creek,
(ii) Excavated pond is ready by eradicating clay from a reasonably degree space. Excavation is completed as much as the required depth. Water provide is organized from a close-by river, canal or effectively and the inlet is supplied with lower off valve and display screen,
(iii) Levee ponds are constructed with out excavation on an agricultural land. A levee pond is like an irrigated rice subject, however the pond levee is significantly greater.
Earlier than developing a fish farm, choice of an acceptable web site is necessary. Financial system of development and productiveness of the ponds relies upon largely on its location.
The most important consideration needs to be the topography, soil sort and supply of water. A gently sloping terrain of a valley, or a bowl formed space with excessive lands on three sides and a slim outlet on the fourth, are thought-about to be ideally suited for a fish farm, offered the soil is appropriate and water provide is accessible.
Such an space may be simply transformed into a big pond by developing an embankment on one facet to shut the outlet. The soil should be impervious to the water. Rocky and sandy soils needs to be prevented and silty clay is most popular. If the land has been used for agriculture, soil needs to be examined for residual pesticides, that are poisonous to fish.
Soil needs to be examined by a soil analyst to find out whether or not or not the soil is succesful of holding water, particularly through the dry season.
Nursery and rearing ponds may be constructed on porous soil, as they’re seasonal and are required to carry water for a brief interval; however for stocking ponds, porous soil needs to be handled with clay or appropriate soil-sealant is unfold over the underside in a number of layers to make it impervious.
Availability of ample provide of water is a vital consideration. Rivers, lakes or huge reservoirs are thought-about to be the very best supply of water. Streams, canals and wells are additionally good and reliable supply of water for the ponds.
Association needs to be made for correct drainage. Ponds needs to be so constructed that every may be drained fully and individually, and water may be changed with recent oxygenated water.
The drain pipe of the pond needs to be giant sufficient for fast drainage. The inlet pipe needs to be 15-20 cm above the water degree, and should be supplied with a display screen to stop the entry of wild fish.
A display screen needs to be positioned on the finish of the outlet additionally to test loss of fish. One other issue to be thought-about is that the pond needs to be free from overflow or flooding from rain water.
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Format of a Fish Pond
The structure of a fish farm relies upon upon the whole space obtainable, species to be cultured, and the kind of farming to be practiced. For restricted farming, fry and fingerlings are procured from the market, and are grown in ponds to marketable dimension. For this few rearing and stocking ponds are required to be constructed.
However in full fish farming a bigger quantity of tanks are required for particular function, because the brood fish are spawned, eggs are hatched, fry are reared to fingerlings and adults.
Earlier than developing the ponds, chosen web site is cleared of all of the bushes, stumps, rocks and stones, that are prone to intrude with netting and harvesting operations.
Ponds needs to be organized in such a approach as to supply most effectivity of manufacturing. Often small farms (1-5 acre) are most popular as they’re straightforward to handle, and small ponds may be drained and refilled shortly, facilitating higher care of the fish.
Ponds may be organized in a single of the next methods:
(a) Ponds are constructed in a sequence, one behind the opposite, and are linked to one another. Water from the supply is equipped to the ponds by a channel, and the final pond has an outlet to empty extra of water. Ponds are linked to one another and one overflows into the opposite.
(b) Ponds are organized parallel to one another and have separate inlet and outlet in order that water from one pond doesn’t overflow into the opposite. They might be inbuilt one or two rows. A display screen is at all times offered close to the inlet and outlet to stop entry of wild fish, and loss of tradition fish.
Swamps will also be reclaimed and transformed to fish ponds. Swamps will also be used for the tradition of air respiratory fishes.
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