Home Crop Monitoring Ugu Vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis) Production Guide

Ugu Vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis) Production Guide

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Ugu Vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis) is a tropical vine grown in West Africa as a leaf vegetable and for its edible seeds. Widespread names for the plant embrace fluted gourd, fluted pumpkin, ugu (within the Igbo language), and ikong-ubong (within the Efik and Ibibio languages).

Telfairia occidentalis is a member of the household Cucurbitaceae and is indigenous to southern Nigeria. The fluted gourd grows in many countries of West Africa, however is principally cultivated in Igboland and Calabarland and it’s used primarily in soups and natural medicines.

Though the fruit is inedible, the seeds produced by the gourd are excessive in protein and fats, and might, due to this fact, contribute to a well-balanced eating regimen.

Telfairia occidentalis is broadly traded in native markets and can also be transported in bulk to giant cities

The plant is a drought-tolerant, dioecious perennial producing vigorous herbaceous stems that may be 15 metres or extra lengthy, these scramble over the bottom, clambering into different vegetation the place they assist themselves by the use of tendrils. The plant is often grown trellised.

Distribution
– West tropical Africa – Benin to Cameroon.

Habitat
– Lowland rainforest and riversides Rain-forest; secondary forest; forest edges; probably usually as a relic of former cultivation

Pollination: Bees and different bugs

Temperature requirement : 21-30°c. Can tolerate low temperatures as much as 5°c
Moisture requirement : 1900 – 2700mm

Soil requirement : adapt to wide selection of soil situation

pH vary : 4. 5 – 6. 0

Propagation
– Seed might be sown in situ or in containers. When grown in containers, sow 2 – 3 seeds in every container thinning to the strongest plant as soon as they germinate.

Seed measurement impacts the vigour, germination charges and institution of the seedlings. Viability varies from 63% for small seeds weighing lower than 11g, as much as 89% for seeds weighing 22g.

Germination takes about 14 days in pure soil, however solely 7 days in a sawdust medium. Vine size one week after emergence is on common 31cm for giant seeds, whereas small measurement seeds develop right into a corresponding vine size of 16cm Plant out container-grown vegetation after about 30 days.

Some seeds exhibit polyembryony, producing a couple of seedling.

The seed is recalcitrant in nature. They usually germinate while nonetheless within the fruit and have a brief viability, thus seed storage is tough.

The crucial seed moisture content material under which seeds can’t get well from desiccation is 40 – 60%

Plant spacing : 1m x 1m

Fertilization
(a) For Excessive Leaf Yield:- The next fertilizer i~
really helpful:-
Basal gown 60kg N/ha; 60kg P2o5/ha and 45kg K20iha.
Gown vegetation with 30kg N/ha after 3 months to boos1
vegetative progress. After 6 months, gown with 30kg N/ha.

(b) For Pod Production: -Apply 400kg/ha of compound fertilize!

  • NPK 15.15.15 after the primary weeding.

Staking
Staking, other than lowering the incidence of spots on the depart~
because of higher publicity and air flow round vegetation, has been proven to
give excessive leaf yields of leaves and enhances pod formation.
It’s endorsed that staking be carried out 6- 8 weeks after planting
by constructing overhead racks with forked sticks and bamboos or poles
The racks may very well be of any handy top however not decrease than I meter.

Established vegetation thrive in each shade and open area and are drought resistant, although yields are drastically decreased in instances of drought

Fluted pumpkin grows quick within the heat, humid tropics, producing edible leaves within the wet season and at the start of the dry season, for a interval of 6 – 10 months

The plant might be managed as a short-term perennial when grown on well-drained soils, barely shaded and properly mulched. On soggy soils and in sunlit spots it could solely be grown as an annual.
Feminine vegetation are often grown for his or her edible younger shoots since males don’t produce many of those

The primary harvest of those shoots happens about 2 – 3 months after sowing the seed
As much as 15 harvests could also be obtained throughout the next 120 – 160 days

Male vegetation begin to flower about 3 months after planting, a month sooner than females vegetation

Hand pollination appears to be advantageous for fruit set because it resulted in 35% fruit set in comparison with 15% fruit set in open pollination

Feminine vegetation produce about 18 single flowers which set fruit, however only one – 4 turn into mature fruits.
Out of the feminine vegetation of a inhabitants, solely 35% bear fruits. A big variation happens between and inside vegetation within the variety of seeds per fruit, from 6 seeds per fruit as much as 196, with a mean of 62 seeds. The seeds are additionally unequal in measurement, various in weight from 1 – 68g.
Fruits are prepared about 5 – 6 months after sowing.

Learn Additionally: Well being Advantages of Fruits and Greens

Yield
The contemporary shoot yield might be as little as 500 – 1,000 kilos per hectare, however it could additionally attain 3 – 10 tonnes. In dwelling gardens in Benin, one plant occupying 3 metres of fence produced 2 kilos of younger leaves per metre within the wet season and 500g within the dry season with out irrigation

The seed yield can attain 1.9 tonnes per hectare, derived from 3,000 fruits
A dioecious species, each female and male types should be grown if fruit and seed are required

Figuring out the feminine vegetation from both seeds or younger seedlings has not been profitable, however vine measurement 64 days after planting may very well be used as a intercourse indicator, as a result of feminine vegetation are extra vigorous than the male ones

Period of the Ugu Vegetable crop

For financial yield, it’s endorsed that the crop ought to be
terminated after 2 years. Fluted pumpkin stands planted across the
compound and people planted in affiliation with tree crops proceed for
4 years or extra supplied pests and illnesses don’t harm tuberous
root system of the crop.

Inter-ropping
Fluted pumpkin is often grown combined with yam, cassava, cocoyam, plantain, maize, and different greens or in pure stands. It may also be grown in affiliation with houndary tree crops wherein case it’s
inspired to path on the timber.

Pests
Numerous pests- grasshopper (Zonoce111s vruiagatus), sucking leaf beetles, destroy the leaves and fruit flies infest the fruit particularly throughout the dry season.
Agrothion, Vetox 85, and different potent and protected pesticides supply management measures.

Illnesses
Cercospora spot is a serious fungal illness, which impacts the leaves of the fluted pumpkin particularly within the wet season.
Dithane M-45, Benlate, and different fungicides are
really helpful.
1 Mildews: -That is one other frequent illness of the wet season. The higher sides of leaves arc lined with what seems like white or brown powder, which may readily be rubbed off with the thumb. To regulate this, spray or deal with with both lime-sulphur (I tablespoonful in 7 beer bottles of water; I beer bottle – 630 mls).

Ugu Vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis)
Ugu Vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis)

Plant merchandise and makes use of
Cooked Seeds has a pleasing almond-like taste. It may be boiled and eaten as a nut, or floor right into a flour to be used in soup. Immature seeds are cooked or roasted; they may also be fermented for a number of days and eaten as a slurry.

Mature seeds usually are not consumed straight as a result of they’ve a excessive content material of anti vitamins.
The uncooked flour reveals higher water and fats absorption properties than the oil, therefore its helpful utility in baking merchandise.

The seed accommodates as much as 30% protein and a excessive content material of a non-drying oil. The massive seeds are as much as 5cm in diameter and are contained in a fruit that may weight as much as 50kg.

The seeds have a really excessive oil content material and are used to make a cooking oil. The primary constituents of the oil are oleic acid (37%), stearic and palmitic acid (each 21%), linoleic acid (15%). Variation between samples, nevertheless, is giant.

Leaves and younger shoots – cooked as a pottery. The leaves are used alone or along with okra (Abelmoschus caillei and Abelmoschus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), or egusi seeds (Citrullus lanatus and different species). They may also be combined with eru (Gnetum africanum) and Pterocarpus spy audio. The younger shoots, as much as 50cm lengthy, are utilized in stews and as a aspect dish.

The fruit pulp, together with the younger seeds, is often made into marmalade.

Medicinal
Pregnant girls, and sufferers affected by anaemia, use the leaf juice as a tonic to strengthen the blood.

Agroforestry Makes use of:
Fluted pumpkin is usually grown as a crop in homesteads, the place it’s inter-cropped with different greens and meals crops similar to cassava, yams and maize, or is planted in opposition to fences.

Different Makes use of
The oil from the seeds is reported to be non-drying, and likewise for use as drying oil for paints and varnishes.
The stems are macerated to supply fibres which can be used as a sponge.

Well being Advantages of pumpkin leaf (Ugwu Vegetable) to people and animals
Few reality in regards to the maintaining a healthy diet inexperienced greens largely ugu its fights in opposition to most cancers, will increase fertility, prevents an infection, decrease ldl cholesterol, tackles convulsion, combats diabetes, and different associated diseases.
Pumpkin leaf, which is regionally generally known as “Ugwu,”or ugu is a type of vegetation that secretly carry some unbelievable well being advantages.

It’s stated to be secret as a result of the well being advantages of the plant are unknown to most individuals. And the few who deem themselves understanding, know solely little in regards to the plant.
Pumpkin leaves have a wholesome quantity of
Vitamin A,
Vitamin C,
Calcium,
Iron.
And other than the imaginative and prescient advantages in Vitamin A that the leaves present, there are additionally quite a few pores and skin advantages.

Moreover, the vitamin C that’s contained in it helps to heal wounds and kind scar tissue. It additionally helps to take care of wholesome bones, pores and skin, and enamel.
However these usually are not the one well being advantages of this excellent plant. For it additionally fights in opposition to most cancers, will increase fertility, prevents an infection, decrease ldl cholesterol, tackles convulsion, combats diabetes, and likewise an anti-aging agent.

Additionally it is vital to notice that pumpkin leaves comprise plenty of nutritional vitamins and minerals, which incorporates:
Potassium,
Calcium,
Folic acid,
Iron,
Vitamin E,
Vitamin B6,
Vitamin A,
Vitamin C,
Magnesium,
Phosphorus,
Thiamine,
Niacin,
Dietary fibers,
Riboflavin,
Copper,
Manganese,
Proteins.

Associated: 50 Enterprise Concepts for Aspiring Entrepreneurs on Agriculture

Listed below are 5 unbelievable well being advantages of pumpkin leaves:

  1. It fights in opposition to most cancers
    Progressively changing into one of many main causes of dying around the globe, most cancers is now a family identify with regards to sicknesses.
    And in contrast to earlier than when it was uncommon to search out somebody affected by most cancers, it has turn out to be extra like an airborne illness these days.
    Be that as it could, the presence of antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties in fluted pumpkin leaves assist battle in opposition to the dreaded sickness.
    As well as, the contained chlorophyll, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, and phytosterols which possess chemo-suppressive properties, makes it potential for the leaves to forestall most cancers progress.
  2. It tackles convulsion
    Convulsion as a dysfunction might be defined as a sudden, violent, irregular motion of the physique, brought on by involuntary contraction of muscle tissue and related particularly with mind issues similar to epilepsy, the presence of sure toxins or different brokers within the blood, or fever in kids.
    It isn’t a factor that one ought to expertise as a result of it may be horrible. Nonetheless, different medication practitioners have used pumpkin leaves to forestall and deal with this dysfunction for years.
    The younger leaves are sliced and combined with coconut water and salt and are saved in a bottle until every time there’s a necessity for it.
  3. It will increase fertility
    Research have proven that pumpkin leaves might be very important when it comes treating infertility points. The antioxidants properties which embrace oleic acid, vitamin A, alkaloids, tannins and linoleic acid have been proven to assist increase the performance of the testicles for an elevated sperm rely.
  4. It helps to maintain diabetes underneath management
    Identified to assist scale back the sugar stage within the blood, the hypoglycemic impact of pumpkin leaves assist maintain diabetes underneath management.
    Research have additionally proven that the aqueous leaf extract of pumpkin leaves acts as anti-diabetic properties which assist to cut back and regulate the glucose stage of diabetic sufferers.
    And that is linked to the presence of ethyl acetate and polysaccharides content material within the leaves, that are anti-diabetic properties.
  5. It boosts the immune system
    The immune system contains the organs and processes of the physique that present resistance to an infection and toxins. And these organs embrace the thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
    Nonetheless, owing to the wealthy content material of nutritional vitamins and minerals contained in it, pumpkin leaves have been proven to be a excessive booster of the immune system.
    Thus, sustaining an general well being within the course of.
  6. Pumpkin leaves helps to unravel liver and kidney issues Pumpkin leaf juice will help your liver and kidney. In the event you undergo from gall bladder or kidney stones issues, drink a little bit of juice. One cup per day can enhance your situation. It’s best to drink half a cup within the morning and half a cup within the night for ten days. Additionally, Ugu leaves have an amazing laxative impact. It is going to assist your digestive system and treatment constipation.
  7. Improves eyes well being Ugu leaves juice is an ideal supply of Vitamin A, which is vital for eye well being and prevents many illnesses that include age. It additionally prevents degeneration of a number of the components of the attention.
  8. Treats arteriosclerosis Do you wish to eliminate the previous build-up of arterial deposits? Effectively, this vegetable will assist to scrub out your arteries and scale back the chance of coronary heart illnesses. It accommodates plenty of anti-oxidants, which assist to forestall arteriosclerosis.
  9. Relieves morning illness In the event you undergo from morning illness, when pregnant, attempt some pumpkin leaf juice! Ugwu juice is an efficient technique to scale back morning illness. Most of pregnant girls requested, admitted that half of cup of juice actually helped them to beat morning illness.Ugwu juice fights morning illness!
  10. Helps in remedy of Hepatitis A and Reactivates Liver Operate Do you undergo from viral hepatitis A? Ugwu juice is usually a answer for you. Make it part of your common eating regimen. Additionally, if in case you have any downside with liver capabilities, then pumpkin’s biologically lively substances also can provide help to really feel higher.
  11. Has sedative advantages Feeling drained or not getting sufficient of sleep currently? One cup of Ugu leaf juice earlier than you go to mattress will help you to battle insomnia. A glass of pumpkin leaf juice with honey is even higher than milk with honey!
  12. Lowers hypertension dangers the juice helps to attenuate the chance of hypertension. As a result of excessive stage of pectin, this vegetable is on the high amongst all greens that assist in lowering ldl cholesterol.
  13. Improves lactation Pumpkin leaves are wealthy in calcium, so the juice of Ugu leaves is well-liked amongst lactating moms. It normalizes the calcium stage and helps girls lactate correctly.
  14. Boosts weak immunity to spice up your immunity, ingesting a little bit of juice on daily basis is required by most of docs. Vitamin C and different minerals shield the physique from varied illnesses.
  15. Boosts fertility a latest research reveals that pumpkin leaves have the potential to extend spermatogenesis and assist girls’s fertility.
  16. Prevents convulsion this advice is often given by docs, who apply ethno medication. To stop convulsion, you’re presupposed to drink pumpkin leaves juice combined with coconut water. Initially, have your leaves sliced and combined with coconut water. Then put some salt in it and retailer it in a bottle.
  17. Protects from infections It isn’t a secret that Ugu leaves have antibacterial properties, consumption of those leaves regularly will maintain you to withstand/forestall many bacterial infections.
  18. Helps in digestion It’s apparent that pumpkin leaf has excessive fiber content material, so it helps in bettering digestion. The juice comprised of pumpkin leaves is taken into account as probably the greatest juices for detoxication.

Profitability of pumpkin leaves enterprise

Fundamental assumptions

1 plant yield between 500g – 2kg of leaves

Plant inhabitants per hectare =10, 000 vegetation

Least Yield per hectare : 0.5kg x 10000 vegetation = 5000kg pumpkin leaves

Supposing 1kg of pumpkin leaves sells for N200

Complete revenue : 5000kg of leaves x N200 = N1,000,000

Ugu enterprise could be very profitable and price investing in.

Learn Additionally: The right way to Domesticate Grafted Wambugu Apples

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